Biology Miller and Levine chapter 19

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Terms in this set (...)

extint
a species that has died out
paleontologist
reseachers who study fossils to learn about ancient life
Relative dating
it places rock layers and their fossils in a temporal sequence
Index fossils
distinct fossils used to establish and comparethe relative ages of rock layers and the fossils they contain
Radiometric dating
a way of dating fossils that relies on radioactive isotopes, which decay, or break down, into stable isotopes at a steady rate
half-life
the time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay
geologic time scale
a time line of Earth's historyeras
eras
what eons are divided into
periods
what eras are subdivided into
plate tectonics
"solid plates" that move around
macroevolutionary patterns
grand transformations in anatomy, phylogeny, ecology, and bejavior, which ususally take place in clades alrger that a single species
background extinction
"buisness as usual" extinction
mass extinction
an event during which many species becoe extinct over a relatively short period of time
gradualism
Darwin's idea that evolution needed to be slow and steady
Punctuated equilibrium
the term used to describe equilibrium that is interrupted by brieg periods of more rapid change
Adaptive radiation
the process by which a single spevies or a small group of species evolves over a relatively short time into several different forms that live in different ways
convergent evolution
evolution produces similar structures and characteristcs in distantly related organismals through this process
coevolution
the process by which two species evole in response to changes in each other over time
endosymbiotic theory
prokaryotic cells entered those ancestral eukaryotes

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