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Psych of Learning (Ch 4-6)
Terms in this set (150)
When we have reached the maximum amount of conditioning that can be obtained, we say we have reached the ________ of conditioning
Sol was harassed by a couple of bullies while walking home from school one day. Although the two bullies were equally abusive, he developed a much stronger fear of the bully whom he had never seen before. This seems to be an example of _________
Stimulus generalization in classical conditioning is the tendency of the ______ to occur in the presence of a stimulus that is similar to the ___________
In blocking, a compound stimulus costing of __________ is paired with a US
Most of your fellow workers have coffee breaks in the staff lounge. One day, in the meeting room, a couple of them verbally attack you, causing you to feel quite anxious. Later that day, you also feel anxious when you are in the staff lounge, even though no one else is present. This example best illustrates
In higher-order conditioning, a(n) _______ is used in place of a(n) ______ to condition other stimulus
Julie finds that by focusing on the strangely dressed man in the front aisle, her stage fright is somewhat alleviated. This is best described as an example of ____________
The term ________ refers to the sudden recovery of a response during an extinction procedure when a __________ stimulus is introduced
Which of the following can be considered a demonstration of latent learning?
Gain is to ______ as loss is to _____
Ben immediately takes a liking to Jan after learning that she is a friend of the famous pop artist, Alicia Keys, whom he has always adored. This situation seems most analogous to the process of
According to the text, a person suffering from schizophrenia will show a deficit in which of the following?
Sensory preconditioning can be considered as a demonstration of
You repeatedly pair a tone with food until the dog salivates to the sound of the tone. You then present the tone several times without the food until the dog no longer salivates when he hears it. Presenting the tone several times without food is an example of
A _________________ consists of the simultaneous presentation of two or more individual stimuli.
The generalization of a CR to a word that is similar in meaning to a CS is called
A bright light paired with food will produce ______ conditioning compared to a faint light paired with food.
Zoe has had her pet terrier, Roscoe, for several years. Although recently Zoe has twice been bitten by Roscoe, she is completely unafraid of him. Of the following, this is most clearly an example of the ____ effect.
Darren is afraid of bees, but only when he is near a nest, since bees are most likely to attack when their nest is threatened. This is best described as an example of
A multiple choice exam is similar to the phenomenon of
Experimental neurosis is an experimentally produced disorder that results from exposure to ____ events.
During a higher-order conditioning procedure, the presentation of a(n) _____ is followed by a(n) _____.
A conditioning procedure in which the strength of the US varies over time is
A rat is given an electric shock every two minutes. As a result, toward the end of each two minute interval, it ceases pressing a lever for food. This is an example of
In Pavlov's conditioning experiments, the experimental chamber likely functioned as a(n)
Broader is to narrower as
generalization is to discrimination
Pavlov reported that dogs with a(n) ____ temperament were ____ to condition.
Suppose you work on a group project for one of your classes. You do 80% of the work for the project, and also do an excellent job of presenting it to the rest of the class. However, your teacher gives a higher mark to another member of the group who actually contributed very little to the project, but had previously attained a high mark in a different class with that teacher. This example is most similar to the process of
Suppose you work on a group project for one of your classes. You do 80% of the work for the project, and also do an excellent job of presenting it to the rest of the class. However, your teacher gives a higher mark to another member of the group who actually contributed very little to the project, but who is very outgoing and flamboyant. This example is most similar to the process of
In ____, the more salient member of a compound stimulus is more easily conditioned as a CS.
The term ____ refers to a procedure in which a certain stimulus indicates that a CS will be followed by the US with which it is associated.
An overshadowing procedure begins with the pairing of
One group of rats is exposed to a conditioning procedure in which a tone and a shock are consistently paired, while another group is exposed to a procedure in which the tone and shock are not paired. The subsequent strength of responding to the tone by the rats in the second group represents the effect of
In blocking, the presence of a ____ prevents conditioning of a new CS.
previously conditioned CS
June once had a skiing accident in which she broke her leg, the result of which was that she became slightly anxious while skiing. Later, she heard of someone who died from a broken leg that became infected. The next time she went skiing, she found that she was quite anxious. This is most similar to a conditioning phenomenon known as
Sol was harassed by a couple of bullies while walking home from school one day. Although the two bullies were equally abusive, he subsequently feared only the bully whom he had previously feared. This seems to be an example of
A response that has been extinguished
can be rapidly reacquired
According to the latent inhibition effect, it is more difficult to condition a stimulus that is relatively
In pseudoconditioning, the "CR" is
the result of sensitization rather than conditioning.
A useful procedure for testing the sensory capacities of animals is a(n) ____ procedure.
Jollena decided to confront her fear of dogs by volunteering to look after Arnold, the neighbor's Golden Retriever. By the end of the first day, she was becoming quite comfortable around Arnold. However, when the smoke detector accidentally went off, she found that some of her nervousness toward Arnold had returned. This is best described as an example of
The development of a conditioned fear response through pairing a flash of light with a shock is known as
Toward the end of a day in which she wrote several exams in a row, Susan felt none of the test anxiety that she typically feels. According to the process of _______, she might still feel some degree of anxiety at the start of another test the following week.
Jozef's brother is always mean to him following any kind of disciplinary action by their parents. This is most similar to the procedure used to demonstrate which of the following?
A form of classical conditioning in which the ____ is the passage of time is ____.
CS; temporal conditioning
Pavlov regarded ____ as evidence that extinction involves the ____ of a response.
spontaneous recovery; inhibition
Disinhibition is similar to dishabituation in that both involve
When Bobby was little, his mother used to tell him, "Be polite," and then slap him. As an adult, Bobby feels anxious whenever he overhears a mother tell her child, "Say thank you." This seems to be an example of
When Juan's childhood friend became a famous movie star, Juan also became something of a town celebrity. This is most analogous to the process of
According to Eysenck, extroverts typically ____ than introverts.
are less reactive external stimulation
According to the S-S model of conditioning,
the NS becomes associated with the US
A man with a shoe fetish spends considerable time obtaining women's shoes. This behavior is most easily explained by which theory of conditioning?
According to Pavlov's stimulus-substitution theory, the dog salivates to the sound of a metronome because
the metronome acts as a substitute for the food
In keeping with the ____ model of conditioning, many drug fatalities occur when the person injects a normal dosage of the drug in a(n) ____ environment.
After the therapist told Stan that he had been permanently damaged by the abuse he suffered as a child, he began to experience symptoms of PTSD. This may reflect a process of
Tammy used to love horror movies. One night, however, while watching "Children Shouldn't Play with Dead Things," she became unusually fearful. Since then, she has found that whenever she is feeling stressed at work, she has nightmares of being chased by dead people. Which of the following processes most closely describes what has happened to her?
The concept of ____ refers to an animal's inherited tendency to acquire certain kinds of fears more easily than others.
Valentine (1930) was unable to produce a phobia in his young daughter by blowing a loud whistle when she touched certain objects. He speculated that this was because
After being stung by a bee, Antonio occasionally sees a bee which he then quickly runs away from. As a result, Antonio's fear of bees might ____, which is an example of a process that is known as ____.
According to Freud's notions of psychic energy, the investment of more energy in the id (the instinctual component of personality) means that less energy is available for the ego (the rational component of personality). This model is analogous to which theory of classical conditioning?
According to the S-R model of conditioning, the
the UR becomes associated with the NS
Suppose a US supports a maximum associative value of 30. According to the Rescorla-Wagner theory, if one CS in a compound stimulus has acquired 10 units of associative value, then the other CS will at most have acquired ____ units of associative value.
A click and a scent are each separately paired with a shock, and conditioned to a maximum associative value. The click and scent are then combined into a compound stimulus and subjected to further pairings with the same shock. A likely result is that the associative value of one CS will ____ while the associative value of the other CS will ____.
The fact that a rat's fear response to an aversive CS is likely to be quite ____ its response to the aversive US is best explained by ____.
different from, preparatory response theory
The method of systematic desensitization involves pairing ____ with a succession of stimuli that elicit ____ levels of fear.
The process of ____ is the strengthening of a fear response through brief exposures to a feared CS.
According to the process of ____, a person's reactivity to a fearful event could increase during a stressful event in his or her life.
Suzie once encountered a snake in the woods near town, and as a result developed a strong fear of those woods. Later, however, she learned that there are no snakes in those woods, and that what she thought was a snake must have instead been a branch lying on the ground. As a result, she immediately lost her fear of the woods. This suggests that Suzie's fear of the woods must have been based on an ____ association.
In general, for both smoking and alcoholism, ____ treatments are more effective than ____ treatments.
The average person would likely become most intoxicated by drinking alcohol
while taking a shower
According to the Rescorla-Wagner theory, if a bell and a light are simultaneously associated with shock, then the amount of fear elicited by the bell will be
affected by the amount of conditioning that occurs to the light
US revaluation can strengthen a phobia through
verbally transmitted information, observational learning, and direct exposure to a stronger US (all of these)
In the Watson and Rayner experiment with Little Albert, the US was the
An aversive blast of air has a maximum associative value of 15 units. A compound stimulus consisting of a click and a scent are repeatedly paired with the puff of air, until the asymptote of conditioning has been reached. The scent acquires 13 units of associative value. This means that the click must have acquired ______ units of associative value, which is an example of ______.
A compound stimulus consists of a buzzer and a light flash, each of which has 0 units of associative value. This compound stimulus is then repeatedly paired with a sweet drink that can support a maximum associative value of 15 units. Following these pairings, the buzzer has acquired 14 units of associative value. This means that the light flash has at most acquired ____ units of associative value, which is a demonstration of ____.
The underlying process in counterconditioning is
After being bitten by a cat, Shawna occasionally encounters cats for brief periods of time. According to the process of ____, these encounters may ____ her fear of cats.
Little fears can grow into big fears through the process of
US revaluation, incubation, and selective sensitization (all of these)
In general, phobias represent a process of
Burton grows up in an environment in which he has little control over the things that matter most to him. Paula grows up in an environment in which she experiences a great deal of control over what matters most to her. According to research evidence, which of these children will be most susceptible to acquiring a phobia?
With in vivo desensitization, the phobic stimulus is presented
According to ____ theory, a given US can support only so much conditioning.
Ned found that if he ate cookies while thinking about his recurrent nightmare, the frequency and severity of those nightmares began to decrease. This appears to be an example of the process of
Don was equally attracted to Sasha and Dominique, whom he dated separately. Over time, he learned to become very aroused by Sasha's style of dress and by Dominique's perfume. Later, he struck up a relationship with Marnie, who dressed like Sasha and wore the same perfume as Dominique. According to the Rescorla-Wagner theory, the amount of arousal Don experiences from the perfume alone will likely
In the "Little Albert" experiment, loud noise is to white rat as ______ is to ______.
A treatment method that involves prolonged exposure to a feared stimulus is
A compound stimulus consists of a click, which already has 15 units of associative value, and a scent, which has 0 units of associative value. This compound stimulus is then paired with a shock that can support a maximum associative value of 15 units. Following these pairings, the scent will likely have ____ units of associative value, which is a demonstration of ____.
If the primary effect of a drug is to increase heart rate, the UR in a drug conditioning trial is
According to the compensatory-response model of conditioning, if a certain drug has a tendency to increase blood pressure, then just being in an environment associated with taking the drug may
decrease blood pressure
During the Second World War, the vast majority of people exposed to air raids developed
Pavlov believed that the process of pairing an NS with a US resulted in the formation of a neural connection between
different areas in the cortex that are activated by each type of stimulus
According to the compensatory-response model of conditioning (and assuming that it is relevant to relationships), it would be easier to go through a marriage break-up
if you moved to a different apartment from where you had lived with your former partner
In support of the preparatory-response theory of conditioning,
the CR can sometimes be quite different from the UR
Wolpe's treatment of experimentally-induced phobias in cats was similar to Mary Cover Jones' treatment of Peter in that Wolpe used ____ to counter the fear response.
The treatment method known as ____ involves pairing an event that is overly attractive with an unpleasant stimulus.
In the Watson and Rayner experiment with Little Albert, Albert's fear of the ____ was regarded as evidence of stimulus generalization.
Aaron is much more reactive to loud noises and sudden events than Kevin is. Using the terminology provided in the text, we would say that there seems to be a difference in ____ between the two children, which has probably to a large extent been ____.
If we inherit a tendency to learn fears by observation, then the display of fear by others serves as a(n) _______ for a fear response in ourselves.
For flooding to be effective, the period of exposure to the feared stimulus must be
Factors which suggests that Little Albert did not grow up to have a phobia of furry objects include which of the following?
Little Albert did not have the kind of temperament often associated with phobias
Kyle's mother tells him: "If you don't clean your room, you won't get to watch television." This can be classified as what type of contingency?
Miranda complains loudly every time her boyfriend watches sports. As a result of her complaining, he usually turns off the television. He feels like their relationship is strained, but she feels like things are really going her way. Regarding the use of punishment, what could you say about this example?
Miranda's boyfriend is experiencing punishment for his behavior of watching sports, the relationship might be better if there were more pleasant interactions, rather than aversive ones, and Miranda's "punishing" behavior of complaining has been negatively reinforced (all of these)
Freud believed that humans are motivated to seek pleasure and avoid pain. This notion accords most closely with ______ definition of ______.
Thorndike's; the law of effect
Money and social attention are common examples of ____ reinforcers.
When combined with the terms reinforcement or punishment, the word "negative" means
something that is subtracted or withdrawn
The first psychologist to systematically investigate the effect of consequences on the strength of a behavior was
Properly speaking, when we give a dog a treat for sitting on command, we are attempting to reinforce
If a mother kisses her child whenever he breaks a dish and, as a result, he breaks fewer dishes in the future, the kissing would by definition be a
Events that are innately reinforcing are called
The term ____ refers to the removal of a stimulus following a response which then leads to an increase in the future strength of that response.
A(n) ____ response occurs before the aversive stimulus is presented and thereby prevents its delivery.
From an operant conditioning perspective, chocolate is a reinforcer if it
strengthens the behavior that precedes it
The term "negative punishment" refers to the ____ of a stimulus following a response which then leads to a(n) ____ in the future strength of that response.
The term ____ refers to the presentation of a stimulus following a response which then leads to a decrease in the future strength of that response.
A(n) _____ reinforcer is one that has been deliberately arranged to modify a behavior and is not a natural aspect of a certain situation.
Suppose a rat runs in a wheel and receives a food pellet. The subsequent increase in wheel running as a result of the food delivery is an example of
Properly speaking, operant behavior is said to be ____ by ____.
emitted; the organism
Emitted is to elicited as ____ conditioning is to ____ conditioning.
Food usually functions as a(n) ____ reinforcer while a light that has been paired with food functions as a(n) ____ reinforcer.
The statement, "Don't you dare try it!", would for most people be a(n)
discriminative stimulus for punishment
In the three-term contingency, the antecedent is the
A(n) ____ reinforcer is one that has become a reinforcer because it is associated with some other reinforcer.
Each time Jana learns a new piece on the piano and can play it without error, she gets to have her favorite dessert for dinner. Chances are that Jana's interest in playing the piano will likely
The process of reinforcing gradual approximations to a new behavior is known as
A(n) ____ stimulus serves as a signal that a response will be followed by a reinforcer.
Andre praises his young daughter for being assertive, after which she becomes even more assertive. This is an example of
In ____ conditioning, behavior comes under the control of its consequences.
both operant and instrumental
Skinner's operant conditioning procedure became known as a(n) ____ procedure because ____.
free operant; the animal is free to respond at any rate
Jim compliments his secretary on her sexy new outfit when she offers to bring him coffee one morning. She never again offers to bring him coffee. Out of the following, this is an example of which type of process?
The withdrawal of reinforcement for a behavior is called
Unlike classical conditioning, operant conditioning involves a(n)
neither S-S-R sequence nor is a function of what comes before it
Properly speaking, reinforcers and punishers are defined entirely by
their effect on behavior
A stimulus that can serve as a negative reinforcer can probably also serve as a(n)
A contingency of reinforcement means that
Rat is to ____ as pigeon is to ____.
lever press; key peck
The original law of effect stated that behaviors leading to a(n) ____ are ____.
satisfactory state of affairs; stamped in
Behaviorists have found it useful to define operant behaviors as a(n)
class of responses
When Hai visits his parents, he whines a lot about how unappreciated he is at work. It seems likely that the presence of his parents is ______ for whining.
a discriminative stimulus
The sound of a click can be an effective tool for shaping after it has been paired with ____, thereby making it a ____.
food; secondary reinforcer
When Leena finished her homework, her mother gave her some apple pie. This is obviously an example of
it is impossible to know given the information provided
Behaviors that are motivated by some added incentive are said to be ____ motivated.
When I banged on the heating pipe, it stopped making a noise. The next time I heard that noise, I immediately banged on the pipe. This seems to be an example of
Research has shown that students who have been reinforced for solving complex math problems will subsequently
write essays of higher quality
Increase is to decrease as ____ is to ____.
The three components of the operant conditioning process include
Skinner's development of the operant conditioning chamber was partly motivated by his desire to find a procedure that yielded ____ patterns of behavior.
Skinner divided behaviors into two categories:
operant and respondent
Thorndike argued that animal intelligence could only be studied using
Which of the following is true of money, as a reinforcer?
it can be either a natural or contrived reinforcer
Procedure is to _____ as consequence is to ____.
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