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Envi Sci Test topic 3.1, 3.2, 3.3. & 4
Terms in this set (46)
How many people live without clean water?
How many people die every year due to diarrhoeal diseases
Effect of urbanization on water systems
impermeable surfaces cause more run-off
little vegetation causes higher ground and air temps, increased evaporation, and decreases evapotranspiration
Which was does the water go when it is warm?
away from the equator; towards the poles
Which was does the water go when it is cold?
towards the equator
What are three factors that effect of density?
temperature, pressure, and salinity
What drives the hydrological cycle?
What are storages in the hydrological cycle?
organisms, soil, and various bodies of water
What type flows are in the hydrological cycle?
evapotranspiration, sublimation, evaporation, condensation, precipitation, melting, freezing, flooding, surface runoff, infiltration, percolation, and currents
What has an impact on surface runoff and infiltration?
Human activities such as agriculture, deforestation, and urbanization
What are ocean circulation systems driven by?
differences in temperature and salinity
What are some problems with the Colorado River?
low water levels, heavily dammed for electricity and agriculture, and dried river causes loss of biodiversity
Irrigation leads to what?
What can climate change disrupt?
rainfall patterns and further access to freshwater
The demand for freshwater increases when?
irrigation and industrialization populations increase
Why may freshwater supplies become limited?
through contamination and unsustainable abstraction
What can water supplies be enhanced through?
reservoirs, redistribution, and desalination
What is demanded when there is an increase in human population and diet changes?
aquatic food resources
A high diverse range of food webs is supported by what?
photosynthesis by phytoplankton
What are harvested by human?
aquatic flora and fauna
Where are the highest rates of productivity found?
near coastlines or in shallow seas, where upwellings and nutrient enrichment of surface waters occurs
What has developments in fishing equipment and changes to fishing methods led to?
dwindling fish stocks and damage to habitats
Aquaculture has grown to provide what?
additional food resources and support economic development
Issues around aquaculture include what?
loss of habitats, pollution, spread of diseases, and escaped species
Wild fisheries are also known as what?
What is aquaculture?
the farming of aquatic organisms in both coastal and inland ares that involves intervention in the rearing process to enhance production
What is eutrophication?
excessive richness of nutrients in a lake or body of water, due to runoff form the land, which causes a dense growth in plant life and death of animal life from lack of oxygen
What are types of aquatic pollutants?
floating debris, organic material, inorganic plant nutrients, toxic metals, hot water, oil, radioactive pollution, light, and noise
A wide range of parameters can be used to directly test what?
quality of aquatic systems, including pH, temperature, suspended solids, metals, nitrates, and phosphates
What is Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)?
a measure of the amount of dissolved oxygen required to break down the organic material in a given volume of water through aerobic biological activity
What is a Biotic index?
indirectly measures pollution by assaying the impact on species within the community according to their tolerance, diversity, and relative abundance
What are sources of freshwater pollution?
runoff, sewage, industrial discharge, and solid domestic waste
What are sources of marine pollution?
rivers, pipelines, atmosphere, and activities at sea
Draw the natural water cycle
What is genetic diversity?
range of genetic material in a gene pool or pollution of a single species
What is habitat diversity?
the different kinds of habitats in a given unit area
What is species diversity?
the variety of species per unit area (including species present and abundance)
If species become geographically isolated for a long time, it is possible for the populations to change so much that when they are brought back together they are unable to reproduce
Types of isolation
2) Behavioral: when two individuals are prevented from interbreeding due to behavior
3) Mechanical isolation (parts don't fit!) and
4) Inability to produce fertile offspring
usually have more biodiversity than damaged or degraded ones
Species diversity is the product of two variables
the number of species and their relative proportions
when there is variation within a species, some individuals may be better suited to the environment than others and better able to survive
when a species ceases to exist after the last individual in that species dies
a species found only in that place
extinct because of human hunting and climate change
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