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due process of law

denies the govt right to deprive ppl of life, liberty, and property

equal protection of the law

equal treatment that must be observed by the govt

selective incorporation

court cases that apply bill of rights to the states

freedom of expression

right for ppl to speak, publish, and assemble

freedom of religion

ppl can freely exercise religion, and govt cannot establish a religion

prior restraint

censor publication

clear-and-present danger test

law shouldn't punish speech unless it clearly produces harmful action


defamatory writing

symbolic speech

an act that conveys a political message

free-exercise clause

1st amendment requirement that law cannot prevent free exercise of religion

establishment clause

Congress shall not respect any religion

wall of separation

govt cannot be involved with religion

exclusionary rule

improperly gathered evidence cannot be used in CRIMINAL trial

search warrant

judge's order authorizing a search

probable cause

reasonable cause for issuing warrant or making arrest; more than mere suspicion

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