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13 Question Types Intensive
Terms in this set (42)
Must Be True Question Type goal and family type
Identify the answer choice that is best proven by the information in the stimulus
Family Type 1: The stimulus is taken as a given and the answer choices are under suspicion. No 'new' information can be introduced in the answer choices
Must Be True Question Type Question Stem
If the statements above are true...
The statements above, it true,...
If the information above is correct...
...which one of the following must also be true?
...which one of the following conclusions can be properly drawn on the basis of it?
...most strongly support which one of the following?
Which one of the following can be properly inferred...
Must Be True Question Correct Answer Type
1. Paraphrased Answers - restate a portion of the stimulus in different terms and sometimes can appear as being almost too obvious since it is drawn directly from the stimulus
2. Combination Answers - the result from combining two or more statements in the stimulus will be correct.
Must Be True Question Incorrect Answer Types
1. Could be True/Likely to be True - Attractive b/c there is nothing demonstrably wrong with them but aren't the best choice
2. Exaggerated Answers - Attractive b/c often paraphrased creating combo where the language is similar enough to the stimuli but different enough to be incorrect b/c it stretches the info into a broader statement
3. "New" Information Answers - Attractive b/c could be correct but presents new info not mentioned explicitly in the stimulus. To avoid incorrectly eliminating these answer choices make sure the "new" info doesn't fall within the sphere of a term or concept in the stimulus and make sure it is not the consequence of combining stimulus elements.
4. Shell Game - Attractive b/c an idea or concept is raised in the stimulus, and then a very similar idea appears in the answer choice, but the idea is changed just enough to be incorrect but still attractive
5. Opposite Answer - Attractive if reading too quickly b/c it provides an answer that is completely opposite of the stated facts of the stimulus
6. Reverse Answer - Attractive b/c it contains familiar elements from the stimulus, but the reversed statement is incorrect b/c it rearranges those elements to create a new unsupported statement
Main Point Question goal and Family Type
Asks you to find the primary conclusion made by the author
Family Type 1: stimulus is taken for granted and the answer choices are under suspicion
Main Point Question Stems
Remarkably consistent w/ primary feature being a request to identify the conclusion or the point of the argument
EX: "Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main conclusion of the argument?"
"Which one of the following most accurately expresses the conclusion of the journalist's argument?"
"Which one of the following most accurately restates the main point of the passage?"
"The main point of the argument is that"
Main Point Questions Incorrect Answer Types
1. Answers that are true but do not encapsulate the author's point.
2. Answers that repeat premises of the argument.
Both are attractive b/c they are true based on what you have read however, neither summarizes the author's main point and therefore are incorrect
Point At Issue Question goal and Family Type
Require you to identify a point of contention between two speakers (So stimulus always has 2 speakers)
First Family so you can use in the information in the stimulus to evaluate the answer choice
Point At Issue Question Stems
"Which one of the following most accurately expresses the point at issue between Tom and Mary?"
"Which one of the following most accurately represents what is at issue between Jorge and Ruth?"
"The dialogue above lends the most support to the claim that Sherrie and Fran disagree with each other about which one of the following statements?"
"On the basis of their statement, Logan and Mendez are committed to disagreeing over whether"
Point At Issue Incorrect Answer Types
1. Ethical versus Factual Situations - when a stimulus addresses an issue that is ethical in nature, answer choices that are factual in nature cannot be true (EX: Damon says "WWI began in 1910" and Tania says "No, WWI began in 1914." This is a factual disagreement so an answer choice that says "should nations go to war?" would be incorrect b.c its ethical
2. Dual Agreement or Dual Disagreement - incorrect answer choices will supply statements that both speakers will agree with, or both speakers will disagree with
3. The View of One Speaker is Unknown - an answer choice where the view of only one of the speakers in known is incorrect b.c you are looking for the point of disagreement and if you don't know one of the speakers opinion on the statement how do you know they'll disagree?
Assumption Question goal and Family Type
Ask you to identify a statement that the argument assumes or supposes. An assumption is simply an unstated premise and the correct answer gives what is necessary for the argument to be true
Second Family Type: stimulus is suspect and answer choices are accepted as facts
Assumption Question Stem features and examples
1. The stem uses the word 'Assumption' 'Presupposition' or some variation
2. The stem never uses the word 'if' or any other sufficient condition indicator - b.c an assumption is a necessary part of the argument if a sufficient condition indicator is present it means the question is either a Justify or Strengthen question
3. The stem will likely contain a necessary condition indicator such as required or unless.
Which one of the following is an assumption required by the argument above?
Which one of the following is an assumption upon which the argument depends?
The argument assumes which one of the following?
The conclusion in the passage above relies on which one of the following assumptions?
The position taken above presupposes which one of the following?
The conclusion cited does not follow unless...
Assumption Answer Choices Quirks
1. Watch for Answers Starting with the Phrase "at least one" or "at least some" -
chances are unusually high that the answer will be correct but still double check using the proper negation "none" and check w/ Assumption Negation Technique
2. Avoid Answers that Claim an Idea was the Most Important Consideration for the Author -
these answers typically contain phrases "the primary purpose" "the top priority" or "the main factor" and in every Assumption question they have been wrong b/c an author can always claim that the idea under discussion was very important but not the most important
3. Watch for the use of "Not" or negatives in assumption answer choices -
do not rule out a negative answer choice just because you are used to seeing assumptions as a positive part of the argument b.c one role an assumption can play is to eliminate ideas that could attack the argument usually seen as Defender answer choices usually containing "no" "not" and "never"
Assumption Correct Answer Choices
1. Eliminates any alternate cause for the stated effect - b.c author believes there is only one cause the author assumes no other cause exists
2. Shows that when the cause occurs, the effect occurs - b.c author believes the cause always produces the effect, assumption answer will affirm this relationship
3. Shows that when the cause does not occur, the effect does not occur - b.c author will always assume that when the cause does not occur, the effect will not occur
4. Eliminates the possibility that the stated relationship is reversed - b.c author believes that the cause and effect relationship is correctly stated the author assumes that the relationship cannot be backwards (the effect can't be the cause)
5. Shows that the data used to make the causal statement are accurate or eliminates possible problems with the data - data used to make a causal statement are in error, then the validity of the causal claim is in question and b.c the author assumes that this cannot be the case and that the data are accurate
SAME AS STRENGTHEN ANSWER CHOICE CATEGORIES
Justify the Conclusion goal and Family Type
Ask you to strengthen the argument so powerfully that the conclusion is made logical. It must strengthen the conclusion so it is 100% proven and is sufficient enough to prove the conclusion when added to the premises
Second Family Type: Stimulus is under suspicion and the answer choices are accepted as given
Justify the Conclusion Question Stem features and Examples
1. The stem used the word 'IF' or another sufficient condition indicator - b.c an answer is given to sufficiently prove the conclusion a sufficient condition indicator will often be present
2. Stem uses the Phrase 'allows the conclusion to be properly drawn' or 'enables the conclusion to be properly drawn' - allows to convey that the correct answer is sufficient and in the majority of cases these phrases indicate a Justify question
3. Stem does not Lessen the Degree of Justification - if any stem permits a lessened degree of justification, by using the phrase 'most justifies' or 'does the most to justify' it allows for an answer that doesn't 100% justify the conclusion and should probably be classified as a Strengthen question
EX: The conclusion above follows logically if which one of the following is assumed?
Which one of the following, if assumed, would allow the conclusion to be properly drawn?
Which one of the following, if true, enables the conclusion to be properly drawn?
Which one of the following, if assumed, enables the argument's conclusion to be properly inferred?
Which one of the following is an assumption that would serve to justify the conclusion above?
The environmentalist's conclusion would be properly drawn if it were true that the
The conclusion above is properly drawn if which one of the following is assumed?
Justify the Conclusion Stimulus characteristics
Most Justify stimuli either use Conditional Reasoning or contain numbers and percentages b/c both forms of reasoning allow for certainty when drawing a conclusion that must be met to 100% justify the conclusion
Justify the Conclusion Correct Answer choices
Premises + Answer Choice = Conclusion
If the answer choice is correct it will produce the given conclusion but if its wrong it won't
Strengthen/Support Question goals and Family Type
Ask you to support the argument in any way possible whether by strengthening the argument by 1% or by 100% as long as it strengthens than it is correct
Second Family Type: stimulus is suspect and answer choices accepted as fact
Strengthen Question Stems typical features and examples
1. Stem uses the word 'strengthen' or a synonym such as support, helps, or most justifies
2. Stem indicates that you should accept the answer choices as true usually with the phrase 'Which one of the following, if true,...'
EX: Which one of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?
Which one of the following, if true, most strongly supports the statement above?
Which one of the following, if true, does most to justify the conclusion above?
Each of the following, if true, supports the claim above EXCEPT:
Strengthen Incorrect Answer Types
1. Opposite Answer - they weaken the argument but are tempting b.c they are directly related to the conclusion
2. Shell Game Answers - idea or concept in the stimulus is presented in a very similar way but changed just enough to be incorrect. Usually used to support a conclusion that is similar to but slightly different from the one presented in the stimulus
3. Out of Scope Answers - simply miss the point of the argument and support issues that are either unrelated to the argument or tangential to the argument
Resolve the Paradox goal and Family Type
Every one of the stimulus for this question type contains a discrepancy or seeming contradiction so you must find the best answer choices that best resolves the situation
Family Type 2: Stimulus is suspect and answer choices accepted
Resolve the Paradox Question Stem features and Examples
1. Indication that an Answer Choice should be Accepted as True - since these types of questions are in the Second Family, you must accept the answer choices as true and see if they resolve the paradox of the stimulus usually through the phrase "which one of the following, if true, ..."
2. Key Words that Indicate your Task is to Resolve a Problem - either words that describe the action you must take (Resolve, Explain, Reconcile) or words that describe the paradox present in the stimulus (Paradox, Discrepancy, Contradiction, Conflict, Puzzle)
EX: Which one of the following, if true, would most effectively resolve the apparent paradox above?
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to resolve the apparent discrepancy in the passage above?
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to explain the puzzling fact cited above?
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to reconcile the discrepancy indicated above?
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to resolve the apparent conflict described above?
Resolve the Paradox Incorrect Answer Types
1. Explains only one side of the Paradox - the correct answer must show how both sides coexist
2. Similarities and Differences - if a stimulus contains a paradox that describes 2 similar items, the answer choice can't explain a difference between the 2 and VICE VERSA; a similarity cannot explain a difference and a difference cannot explain a similarity
Resolve the Paradox Stimulus features
1. No Conclusion - author is not attempting to persuade you, they just present 2 sets of contradictory facts (if the 2 aren't contradictory then expect a Must Be True question)
2. Language of Contradiction - in order to present a paradox test makers use language that signals contradiction is present such as: But, However, Yet, Although, Paradoxically, or Surprisingly
Weaken Question goal and Family Type
It requires you to select the answer choice that undermines the author's argument as decisively as possible and is the only member of the Third Family
Weaken Question Stem Examples
Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?
Which one of the following, if true, most undermines the researcher's argument?
Which one of the following, if true, would most call into question the analysts' explanation of the price increase?
Which one of the following, if true, could be used by Cora to counter Bernard's rejection to her explanation?
Which one of the following, if true, is the strongest logical counter parent P can make to parent Q'd objection?
Which one of the following, if true, most calls into question the claim above?
Weaken Question Stimulus features
1. Incomplete Information - author fails to consider all possibilities or relies upon evidence that is incomplete and can be attacked by bringing up new possibilities or info
2. Improper Comparison - author attempts to compare two or more items that are essentially different
3. Qualified Conclusion - author qualifies or limits the conclusion in such a way as to leave the argument open to attack
Weaken Question Incorrect Answer types
1. Opposite Answers - answers do opposite of what is needed and strengthen the argument, attractive b.c they lure the test taker by presenting info relating perfectly to the argument
2. Shell Game Answers - answers raise idea or concept in the stimulus then a very similar idea appears in the answer choice but is changed just enough to make it incorrect, usually by attacking a conclusion that is similar to but slightly different from the one presented in the stimulus
3. Out of Scope Answers - answers simply miss the point of the argument and raise issues that are either not related to the argument or tangential to the argument
Method of Reasoning goal and Family Type
Ask you to describe, in abstract terms, the way in which the author made his or her argument.
First Family, which take the stimulus as a given fact in order to use that infor to prove or disprove each answer choice to find an answer that best describes the method used by the author to make the argument
Method of Reasoning Question Stem features and examples
There are a variety of formats but in each case the stem refers to the method, technique, strategy, or process used by the author while making the argument
EX: The method of the argument is to...
The argument proceeds by...
The argument derives its conclusion by...
Which one of the following describes the technique of reasoning used above?
Which one of the following is an argumentative strategy employed in the argument?
The argument employs which one of the following reasoning techniques?
Aiesha responds to Adam's argument by...
Method of Reasoning Stimulus Features
The stimulus will contain an argument that can be valid or invalid, with many of these question type answer choices reflecting your assessment of the validity of the argument. Keep an eye out for the presence of the Premise and Conclusion indicators that will help identify the structure of the argument leading to a better understanding of the answer choices
Method of Reasoning Incorrect Answer Types
1. New Element Answers - answers must be based on elements of the stimulus so if an answer describes something that did not occur in the stimulus it is ALWAYS incorrect
2. Half Right, Half Wrong Answers - LSAT test makers love to start answer w. description of something that in fact occurred in the stimulus but ends by describing something that did not occur in the stimulus...half wrong equals all wrong
3. Exaggerated Answers - take a situation from the stimulus and stretch that situation to make an extreme statement not supported by the stimulus, but be careful b.c extreme language does not mean that the answer is always incorrect
4. The Opposite Answer - provides an answer that is exactly the opposite of correct
5. The Reverse Answer - attractive b.c it contains familiar elements from the stimulus but reverses them in the answer and since that does not describe what occurred in the stimulus it is incorrect
Flaw in the Reasoning goal and Family Type
Ask you to describe, in abstract terms, the error of reasoning committed by the author
Family Type 1: stimulus accepted as fact and answer choices suspect
Flaw in the Reasoning Question Stem Features and Examples
They indicate a flaw is present in the argument, usually in phrases such as 'the reasoning is flawed' and 'the argument is vulnerable
EX: Which one of the following most accurately describes a flaw in the argument's reasoning?
The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the ground that the argument...
The reasoning above is flawed because it fails to recognize that...
A questionable aspect of the reasoning above is that...
The reasoning in the argument is fallacious because the argument...
Parallel Reasoning Question goal and Family Type
To identify the answer choice that contains reasoning most similar to the reasoning in the stimulus and since it is also in the First Family you take the stimulus as granted and compare it to the different answer choices
Parallel Reasoning Question Features and Stem Examples
tells you valid or invalid and if it is a flawed, invalid stimulus than the question is called a Parallel Flaw and uses words such as "flawed" or "questionable"
EX: "Which one of the following is most closely parallel in its reasoning to the reasoning in the argument above?"
"Which on of the following exhibits a pattern of reasoning most similar to that exhibited by the argument above?"
"Which one of the following arguments is most similar in its logical features to the argument above?"
"Which one of the following arguments is most similar in its pattern of reasoning to the argument above?"
"The structure of the reasoning in the argument above is most parallel to that in which one of the following?"
Evaluate the Argument Question goal and Family Type
Ask you to consider the question, statistic, or piece of information that would best help determine the logical validity of the argument presented in the stimulus...DECIDE IF ARGUMENT IS GOOD OR BAD
It is not in 1 family type but rather a combination of type 2 and 3
1. Information in the Stimulus is Suspect
2. Answer Choices are accepted as a given, even if they introduce 'new' information so your task is to determine which answer choice best helps determine the validity of the argument
Evaluate the Argument Question Stem features and Examples
Has the word indicators evaluate, assess, and judge
EX: "The answer to which one of the following questions would contribute most to an evaluation of the argument?"
"Clarification of which one of the following issues would be most important to an evaluation of the skeptics' position?"
"Which one of the following would be most important to know in evaluating the hypothesis in the passage?"
"Which one of the following would it be most relevant to investigate in evaluating the conclusion of George's argument?"
"Which one of the following would it be most helpful to know in order to judge whether what the scientist subsequently learned calls into question the hypothesis?"
Cannot Be True Question goal and Family Type
To identify the answer choice that cannot be true or is most weakened by the information in the argument
Sole member of the Fourth Family
1. Accept the stimulus information and use it to prove one of the answer choices cannot occur
2. If an answer choice contains 'new' information or info that doesn't directly appear in the stimulus or as a combination of items in the stimulus it is Incorrect.
3. Correct answer choice will directly disagree with the stimulus or a consequence of the stimulus
Cannot Be True Question Stem Features and Examples
1. Stating that the answer cannot be true or does not follow.
EX: "If the statements above are true, which one of the following CANNOT be true?"......"The argument can most reasonable be interpreted as an objection to which one of the following claims?"...."The statements above, if true, most seriously undermine which one of the following assertions?"...."The information above, if accurate, can best be used as evidence against which one of the following hypotheses?"
2. Stating that the answer could be true EXCEPT.
EX: "If all of the claims made above are true, then each of the following could be true EXCEPT?"
3. Stating that the answer choice must be false
EX: "If the statements above are true, then which one of the following must be false?"
Cannot Be True Stimulus Features
1. Numbers and Percentages - stimulus will often supply enough info for you to determine that certain outcomes must occur and the correct answer then violates this outcome
2. Conditional Statements - in conditional statements there are many different scenarios that occur EXCEPT if the sufficient condition occurs and the necessary condition does not occur therefore you should actively seek the answer that matches the scenario above b.c it CANNOT BE TRUE
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