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Motor Speech PPT 3
Terms in this set (58)
Degrees of Freedom
The number of elements that can be independently controlled.
To maintain speed and fluency...
the sequences of movements are programmed together as a single movement unit
The greater the degrees of freedom...
the greater the challenge to the speaker
Speakers reduce the number of degrees of freedom by...
organizing motor actions into motor units
single control mechanism that controls more than one degree of freedom
Basic pattern of movement components remains ______________ while more specific aspects of movements are influenced by _____________________________________.
constant; specific circumstances
Producing speech involves producing both ______________________ and ________________________.
linguistic units and acoustic events
processes that define and sequence articulatory goals (prior to initiation of movement)
processes that establish and prepare the flow of motor info across muscle, as well as control timing and force of movement (prior to initiation of movement)
processes that activate relevant muscles (during and after initiation of movement)
Extensive practice and experience producing speech leads to _____________________.
permanent changes in capability of movement
memory representations of motor specifications needed to reach a desired speech outcome (schemas)
Person uses store schema to produce desired __________________.
Impairments of planning
impaired coordination, sequencing
Impairments of programming
relevant muscles and muscle groups is disrupted
Impairments of execution
disruptions in muscle physiology - afected by involuntary movements and reductions in movement abilities
(SEVERITY): World Health Organization
Underlying physiological condition or psychological cause
actual behavioral or performance deficits that result from the disease
(SEVERITY): Participation in life
how the disease impacts upon quality of life of individual at home, school, work, and in the community
Differences occur between individuals in...
- ability to compensate
- ability to use unimpaired systems
- general life response
- response to treatment
Motor Planning Disorders
inability to group and sequence the relevant muscle with respect to each other.
- apraxia of speech (AOS) - acquired and developmental
Motor Execution Disorders
deficits in physiology and movement abilities of muscles
- dysarthria - acquired and developmental
Characteristics of Apraxia of Speech
Prolonged duration of sounds, reduced prosody, inconsistent errors within an utterance, difficulties initiating speech, groping of articulators
Caused by neurological damage to the left frontal cortex surrounding Broca's Area-to to stroke, brain injuries, illness and infections
Acquired Apraxia of Speech
Inability to transform an intact linguistic representation into coordinated movements of the articulators.
Characteristics of Childhood Apraxia of Speech
Salient characteristics of this disorder is the same as acquired AOS.
Considerable delay in speech production, limited sound inventory, unintelligibility, and progress slowly in speech therapy.
Causes of Childhood AOS are...
... not well understood; some research points to hereditary component, not clear there is specific neurological damage
Some cases caused by stroke or traumatic brain injury
How are Motor Speech Disorders identified?
Through the assessment process
During the assessment process, professionals consider...
how the disorder affects the individual's life to determine the impairment and the course for treatment
Assessment of motor speech disorders should include...
measures of nonspeech oral motor skills and should isolate particular motor subsystems to determine impairment
What are the 3 measurement methods?
1. Perceptual measures
2. Acoustic measures
3. Physiologic measures
perceptual judgments of intelligibility, accuracy and speed of speech production (most common)
visual representation of the speech sound wave (e.g., spectogram) for more detailed and objective view of speech problems
measurement of physiologic aspects of speech motor system not easily perceived otherwise (e.g., muscle strength)
typically from a hospital, school, or parents of child - depending on whether acquired or developmental disorder
includes interviews with patient and family and review of medical history
Comprehensive Motor Speech Evaluation should involve...
motor control tasks that involve speech and nonspeech motor activities
Comprehensive Motor Speech Evaluation should assess...
the motor speech problems at each of the levels of functioning - disease, activity, and participation in life
Comprehensive Motor Speech Evaluation should include...
assessment of each of the subsystems separately - respiration, phonation, resonation, articulation, and also include prosody
After assessment, findings are interpreted to reach a...
In current practice, differential diagnosis is based largely on....
auditory perceptual measures (the professional's perceptual observations) - not yet on objective acoustic and physiologic indicators.
Treatment of motor speech disorders focuses on...
(re)learning motor aspects of speech production, which requires acquisition, retention, and generalization
Temporary improvements during treatment
Lasting performance enhancements
Improvements in either related but untrained behaviors (response) or in targeted behaviors in different contexts, tasks, or settings (stimulus)
Use of nonspeech tasks (e.g., pursing the lips, smiling, moving the tongue) in assessment does not mean that nonspeech tasks should not be used in treatment
(Treatment Targets) Little research supports...
"oral motor activities" to strengthen the articulators or improve their movements
(Treatment Targets) Focusing on more complex targets results in...
greater learning than focusing on simpler targets
Primary Strategies: Two approaches
1. Improve impaired subsystem - focus on specific functions in relevant speech tasks (e.g. improve respiratory support for speech)
2. Compensatory strategies
(The Treatment Plan) Pre-practice considerations
several conditions should be considered and discussed prior to treatment:
-establishing a reference of correctness
Important indicator of treatment effectiveness is...
Speech production in other tasks and with different conversational partners...
should be included in routine assessment process
Treatment of the Respiratory System includes...
1. Establishing respiratory support (e.g., making postural adjustments)
2. Modifying inhalation (e.g., increasing duration of air intake)
3. Modifying exhalation (e.g., vowel prolongation)
4. Improving inhalation/exhalation relationship
5. Increasing respiratory flexibility (e.g., producing words with a variety of stress patterns
Treatment of Phonatory System includes...
1. Improving voice quality (e.g., postural adjustments, relaxation therapy)
2. Controlling vocal folds to enhance naturalness of speech
Treatment of Articulatory System includes...
1. Focus the patient's attention to the accuracy, range, and direction of movement during speech
2. Feedback from the clinician can include articulatory placement cues (e.g., modeling speech production)
Treatment of Prosody involves...
manipulation of three factors: loudness, pitch, and duration.
Each of these factors should be focused on during treatment
Approaches to reducing the rate of speech involve...
1. rigid control techniques
2. non-rigid control techniques
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