32 terms

Cell Organelles & Structure (Biology 521A)

organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis
cell wall
a rigid structure that provides shape and support for the plant cell
passive transport
movement of materials without the use of the cell's energy
active transport
the movement of ions or molecules across a cellular membrane from a lower concentration to a higher concentration, requiring energy
The movement of molecules or ions from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
Cell Membrane
Separates cell from its environment. Controls movement of substances into / out of the cell
Organizes the cell's microtubules. Contains centrioles which appear to help in organizing cell division.
Clear, thick, jellylike material which supports and protects cell organelles; provides chemical environment for organelles
Strengthen cell & maintains the shape Moves organelles within the cell
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
A network of sacs that manufactures, processes, and transports chemical compounds for use inside and outside of the cell.
Golgi Apparatus
Organelle that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum and send proteins to their final destination
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
Breaks down larger food molecules into smaller molecules. Digests old cell parts.
Primarily structural in function and are an important component of the cytoskeleton.
Carry out a variety of functions, ranging from transport to structural support.
They are the main power generators, converting oxygen and nutrients into energy
Produces ribosomes
Controls cell activities.Contains the hereditary material of the cell
Responsible for protecting the cell from its own production of toxic hydrogen peroxide. (As an example, white blood cells produce hydrogen peroxide to kill bacteria. The oxidative enzymes in peroxisomes break down the hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen)
Makes proteins
Fluid filled sac which stores food, water & waste
Sac-like structure used for transport
Water concentration inside the cell is equal to the water concentration outside the cell
Involves the intake of a small droplet of extracellular fluid
Involves the intake of a large droplet of extracellular fluid which has large particles in it (i.e. bits of organic matter or bacteria)
Receptor assisted endocytosis
Involves the intake of specific molecules(ex. Cholesterol) through the aid of special membrane proteins
The reverse of endocytosis. Involves the movement of a vesicle from inside the cell to the cell surface in which its contents are excreted into the surrounding environment (ex. Insulin secreted by pancreatic cells)
A cell characterized by the presence of a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. Eukaryotes can be unicellular (protists) or multicellular (fungi, plants and animals).
Rough ER
has ribosomes on it; aids in making proteins
No true nucleus, single celled
Cell wall
What is the very outer layer shown in this image called?
This organelle shown above is the site of photosynthesis and is only found in __________ cells.

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