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32 terms

Cell Organelles & Structure (Biology 521A)

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chloroplasts
organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis
cell wall
a rigid structure that provides shape and support for the plant cell
passive transport
movement of materials without the use of the cell's energy
active transport
the movement of ions or molecules across a cellular membrane from a lower concentration to a higher concentration, requiring energy
diffusion
The movement of molecules or ions from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
Cell Membrane
Separates cell from its environment. Controls movement of substances into / out of the cell
Centrosome
Organizes the cell's microtubules. Contains centrioles which appear to help in organizing cell division.
Cytoplasm
Clear, thick, jellylike material which supports and protects cell organelles; provides chemical environment for organelles
Cytoskeleton
Strengthen cell & maintains the shape Moves organelles within the cell
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
A network of sacs that manufactures, processes, and transports chemical compounds for use inside and outside of the cell.
Golgi Apparatus
Organelle that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum and send proteins to their final destination
Osmosis
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
Lysosomes
Breaks down larger food molecules into smaller molecules. Digests old cell parts.
Microfilaments
Primarily structural in function and are an important component of the cytoskeleton.
Microtubules
Carry out a variety of functions, ranging from transport to structural support.
Mitochondria
They are the main power generators, converting oxygen and nutrients into energy
Nucleolus
Produces ribosomes
Nucleus
Controls cell activities.Contains the hereditary material of the cell
Peroxisomes
Responsible for protecting the cell from its own production of toxic hydrogen peroxide. (As an example, white blood cells produce hydrogen peroxide to kill bacteria. The oxidative enzymes in peroxisomes break down the hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen)
Ribosomes
Makes proteins
Vacuole
Fluid filled sac which stores food, water & waste
Vesicle
Sac-like structure used for transport
Isotonic
Water concentration inside the cell is equal to the water concentration outside the cell
Pinocytosis
Involves the intake of a small droplet of extracellular fluid
Phagocytosis
Involves the intake of a large droplet of extracellular fluid which has large particles in it (i.e. bits of organic matter or bacteria)
Receptor assisted endocytosis
Involves the intake of specific molecules(ex. Cholesterol) through the aid of special membrane proteins
Exocytosis
The reverse of endocytosis. Involves the movement of a vesicle from inside the cell to the cell surface in which its contents are excreted into the surrounding environment (ex. Insulin secreted by pancreatic cells)
Eukaryotic
A cell characterized by the presence of a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. Eukaryotes can be unicellular (protists) or multicellular (fungi, plants and animals).
Rough ER
has ribosomes on it; aids in making proteins
Prokaryote
No true nucleus, single celled
Cell wall
What is the very outer layer shown in this image called?
Plant
This organelle shown above is the site of photosynthesis and is only found in __________ cells.

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