10 terms

Period 5: Vocab Quiz #2

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imperialism
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.
Opium Wars
Wars between Britain and the Qing Empire (mid 1800s), caused by the Qing government's refusal to let Britain import Opium. China lost and Britain and most other European powers were able to develop a strong trade presence ("spheres of influence") throughout China against their wishes
settler colony
Large numbers of people come to the colonies to live in the colony and establish a permanent presence. Britain established these including Jamestown; British in South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand; French in Algeria
social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion and racism
Scramble for Africa
Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium in the Congo, Portugal, Italy, and Britain in W. Africa) acquired lesser amounts.
transoceanic empire
These empires, dominated by European powers such as Spain and Portugal, controlled large colonies in the Americas and Caribbean and port cities throughout the world.
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate. (evidence that receiving societies did not always welcome immigrants)
White Australia Policy
The policy formerly used by Australia in an attempt to exclude nonwhites from migrating permanently to Australia and to encourage whites, especially the British, to settle in Australia; officially termed the restricted immigration policy.
Ethnic enclave
A small geographical region in which a large number of immigrants have congregated, such as in Chinatown, Chinese in SE Asia, Indians in East and Southern Africa, the Caribbean, and SE Asia
indentured servant
Colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years, were primarily Chinese and Indian in the 1750-1900 time period.

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