Forensic Science and Criminalistics: Chapter 9
Terms in this set (32)
Refers to the preliminary examination of biological evidence in blood transfer and sexual assault cases, much of which will go on to be analyzed for DNA.
Refers to the preliminary examination and genetic typing of biological evidence in blood transfer and sexual assault cases before DNA analysis was available.
Refers collectively to the red blood cells (erythrocytes) and to all the categories of white blood cells (lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils, neutrophils, and eosinophils.)
The straw-colored liquid portion of blood remaining after whole blood has been allowed to clot.
A chemical substance, such as EDTA or sodium citrate, which, when added to whole blood, prevents it from clotting.
When treated with anticogoagulant, the straw-colored liquid portion of blood after the cells have settled.
A specimen from a known source; it could be known blood, known human blood, known animal blood, or known blood from a particular person; for DNA, it could be a buccal (cheek) swabbing from a known person.
Alibi Known Control
A specimen obtained from a known source that might be the source of the evidence; usually collected because suspects suggest them (as alibis).
In many tests, a clean sample containing no specimen, used to ensure that the test is working properly.
Substratum Comparison Specimen
A sample of the material or surface on which biological evidence is deposited.
Refers to unintended, potentially unrecognized, biological material in or on a biological evidence specimen, which could cause difficulty in interpreting the results of some tests under the circumstances.
A non-definitive screening test used to give an indication that something might be present (like blood, or a body fluid); positive results indicate the need for further tests.
A test that, when positive, proves that the material or substance tested for is actually present.
Enzymes that catalyze the oxidization of a dye to form a new compound that is a different color.
Tests in which the formation of characteristic crystals constitutes a positive result.
Tests based on the use of specific antibodies to demonstrate the species or nature of a biological specimen.
Species of Origin
The species from which an item of biological evidence originated, such as human, horse, cat, cow, etc.
Substances, often proteins, that elicit the formation of specific antibodies if injected into an animal of a different species.
Substances made by vertebrates in response to a "foreign" molecule, virus, or cell invading the body; specifically directed against against the invader and designed to neutralize it and or rid the body of it.
The male reproductive fluid, ejaculated through the penis at male orgasm, and consisting of sperm cells suspended in seminal plasma.
The fluid in which sperm are suspended in whole semen; consists of fluids contributed primarily by the prostate but also by the Cowper's glands.
Sexual Assault Evidence Collection Kit
Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault