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Advanced EMT training @ Gwinnett Tech During the 2013 Spring Semester / Chapter10 Pathophysiology: Selected Inmpairments of Honeostatasis : A Clinical-Reasoning Approach by Melissa Alexander & Richard Belle / 2012
Terms in this set (54)
A life-threatening allergic reaction that produces shock through vasodilation and fluid shifts, with the potential for asphyxia.
Anatomic dead space
The portion of the airway in which gases are present but in which there is no mechanism for exchange of gases with the blood.
Cell death caused by the genetic programming of the cell to eliminate damaged cells; essentially, suicide of damaged cells.
Cellular deprivation of oxygen; suffocation.
An airless state in which the alveoli are collapsed.
A disorder of the heart in which the muscle is enlarged and unable to function effectively.
A preliminary determination of the patient's problem based on the patient's history, signs, and symptoms and the application of the EMS provider's knowledge and process of clinical reasoning to the problem.
A state of inadequate cellular perfusion in which the body can make adjustments to maintain perfusion to the vital organs, but at the cost of decreased circulation and oxygenation of the peripheral tissues.
A state of inadequate cellular perfusion in which the body can no longer provide circulation of an adequate amount of oxygenated blood to the vital organs.
An electrical current passed through the heart between two pads or paddles placed on the chest to terminate ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia.
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
A hyperglycemic diabetic emergency in which the patient suffers from dehydration, acidosis, and electrolyte imbalance.
A heart rhythm that may be irregular, too slow, too fast, or arise from a site other than the sinoatrial node. Dysrhythmia may or may not be life threatening.
Inadequate tissue perfusion caused by blood loss.
An extremely high fever, above 41.1°C or 106°F.
Body temperature that is higher than normal, generally due to factors other than increased metabolism, such as prolonged exposure to an extremely hot environment.
Body temperature that is lower than normal.
A decreased level of oxygen at the cellular level.
The state of shock in which, even with proper resuscitation, the patient ultimately cannot survive the amount of tissue damage done.
Severely diminished or absent blood flow to tissues.
The phase of shock in which both the precapillary and postcapillary sphincters constrict to divert blood flow away from the peripheral tissues and gastrointestinal system.
A chemical formed from pyruvate in anaerobic metabolism; the cause of acidosis in shock.
A decreased blood pH and decrease in bicarbonate level in the blood.
The study of disease states.
The study of the impact of disease on the body and the body's responses to the disease state.
An accumulation of air between the pleural layers that occupies space normally filled by the lungs.
An increase in interstitial fluid in the lungs resulting in a greater diffusion distance for oxygen and carbon dioxide across the respiratory membrane.
An obstruction of the pulmonary circulation by a blood clot or other material, resulting in ventilation of a nonperfused area of the lung and decreased oxygenation.
The initial substance formed in the anaerobic phase of cellular metabolism, which, in the presence of oxygen, is then converted to acetyl coenzyme A for use in the Krebs cycle for further ATP production. In the absence of oxygen, IT is converted to lactic acid.
An absence of breathing; apnea.
The inability to maintain adequate ventilation and oxygen.
A state in which the level of perfusion to the tissues is not adequate to meet metabolic demands.
Indications of illness or injury that can be objectively observed.
A mechanism of the cell membrane that uses energy to exchange sodium and potassium ions across the cell membrane.
The phase of shock in which the precapillary sphincter fails, allowing blood to enter the microvasculature. The postcapillary sphincter remains closed, causing blood to pool in the capillary beds, where it collects lactic acid and microscopic blood clots are formed.
Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA)
An abrupt, unexpected cessation of heart function that often occurs outside the hospital setting.
Subjective sensations of an abnormality in body function.
Ventilation-perfusion (VQ) mismatch
A condition in which either pulmonary circulation or alveolar ventilation is impaired.
A lethal cardiac dysrhythmia in which multiple ectopic pacemakers in the ventricles create chaotic electrical activity that does not produce mechanical contraction of the heart.
A cardiac dysrhythmia that produces a rapidly firing ectopic pacemaker in the ventricles. Typically regular with a wide QRS complex.
The phase of shock in which both the precapillary and postcapillary sphincters have failed and the blood that had stagnated in the capillary beds, along with lactic acid and microscopic blood clots, re-enters the circulation.
Reduction of a size of cells in a issue
A change in the type of cells that comprise a tissue into a differant type of cell that is not normal for taht tissue inorder to adapt to changes in the enviornment.
Increase in the number of cells of a tisue
Increase in the size of cells of a tissue
Loss of cellular differentation
Cell maturation & differentiation are delayed, resulting in the loss of uniformity of cells within a certain tissue
New or expanded growth in an area of the body where it is not expected.
Formation (especially of cells) / suffix
The cellular process by which adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is produced from adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
Hypotension with tachycardia
Shock is best defined as:
A shock patient's compensatory mechanisms will last for only so long, at which time he will enter what phase?
Medulla and pons
What part of the nervous system functions to regulate the respiratory cycle?
Volume trapped in dead air space
What never changes during the respiratory cycle?
Hypoxic cellular injury
What happens when oxygen delivery to cells is hindered or their ability to utilize delivered oxygen is compromised?
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