50 terms

Friedland Chapter 15

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well-being
the status of being healthy, happy, and prosperous
economics
examines how humans either as individuals or as companies allocate scarce resources in the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services
genuine progress indicator (GPI)
attempts to address the shortcomings of GDP as a measure of economic status by including measures of personal consumption, income distribution, levels of higher education, resources depletion, pollution, and the health of the population
technology transfer
when less developed countries adopt technological innovations developed in wealthy countries
leapfrogging
when new technology develops in such a way that makes the older technology unnecessary or obsolete
microlending
the practice of loaning small amounts of money to people who intend to start a small business in less developed countries
natural capital
the resources of the planet, such as air, water, and minerals
human capital
human knowledge and abilities
manufactured capital
all goods and services that humans produce
market failure
when the economic system does not appropriately account for all costs
environmental economics
a subfield of economics that examines the costs and benefits of various policies and regulations that seek to regulate or limit air and water pollution and other causes of environmental degradataion
ecological economics
treats the field of economics as a component of ecological systems rather than as a distinctly separate field of study
valuation
the practice of assigning monetary value to intangible benefits and natural capital
environmental worldview
how you think the world works, how you view your role in it, and what you believe to be proper environmental behavior
anthropocentric (human-centered) worldview
considers that human beings have intrinsic value
stewardship
a subset of the anthropocentric worldview, the careful and responsible management and care for Earth and its resources
biocentric (life-centered) worldview
holds that humans are just one of many species on Earth, all of which have equal intrinsic value
ecocentric (Earth-centered) worldview
places equal value on all living organisms and the ecosystems in which they live, and it demands that we consider nature free of any associations with our own existence
United Nations (UN)
an international institution dedicated to promoting dialog among countries with the goal of maintaining world peace
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
has a number of functions, including gathering environmental information, conducting research, and assessing environmental problems
World Bank
provides technical and financial assistance to developing countries with the objectives of reducing poverty and promoting growth, especially in the poorest countries
World Health Organization (WHO)
created to improve human health by monitoring and assessing health trends and providing medical advice to countries; the group within the UN responsible for human health, including combating the spread of infectious diseases such as those that are exacerbated by global climactic changes
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
the group within the UN with a primary mission of addressing and facilitating issues of democratic governance, poverty reduction, crisis prevention and recovery, environment and energy issues, and prevention of the spread of HIV/AIDS
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
oversees all governmental efforts related to the environment including science, research, assessment, and education
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
an agency of the U.S. Department of Labor; the main federal agency responsible for the enforcement of health and safety regulations
Department of Energy (DOE)
advances the energy and economic security of the U.S.; includes scientific discovery, innovation, and environmental responsibility
human development index (HDI)
combines three basic measures of human status: life expectancy, knowledge and education (adult literacy rate and educational attainment), and standard of living (per capita GDP and individual purchasing power)
human poverty index (HPI)
the counterpart of HDI, measures three things: longevity (percentage of population not expected to live past 40), knowledge (adult illiteracy rate), and standard of living (proportion of the population without access to clean water and health services)
command-and-control approach
a strategy which sets regulations for emissions, for example, and then controls them with fines or other punishments
incentive-based approach
a strategy which constructs financial and other incentives for lowering emissions based on profits and benefits
green tax
a tax placed on environmentally harmful activities or emissions in an attempt to internalize some of the externalities that may be involved in the life cycle of those activities or products
triple bottom line
a concept that states that we need to take into account three factors—economic, environmental, and social—when making decisions about business, the economy, and development
6 major pollutants
sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, tropospheric ozone, and lead
primary and secondary pollutants
A primary pollutant is an air pollutant emitted directly from a source. A secondary pollutant is not directly emitted as such, but forms when other pollutants (primary pollutants) react in the atmosphere.
photochemical oxidents
products of sunlight energy and atoms
photochemical smog
An atmospheric condition formed through a combination of weather conditions and pollution, especially from motor vehicle emissions.
sulfurous smog
A gray-colored air pollution created when power plants and home furnaces burn fossil fuels, releasing sulfur compounds and smoke particles into the air
photochemical formation
formed when nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react to sunlight, creating a brown haze above cities.
thermal inversion
The temperature inversion in which warm air traps cold air and pollutants near the earth.
acid depositions
caused by a chemical reaction that begins when compounds like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released into the air
fluidized bed combustion
Which combustion process reduces the NOx and SOx emissions from coal
baghouse filter
An instillation containing thousands of heat-resistant fiberglass bags to control particulate emissions. A baghouse works as a room size vacuum cleaner
electrostatic precipitators
A device used for removing particulates from smokestack emissions. The charged particles are attracted to an oppositely charged metal plate, where they are precipitated out of the air.
scrubbers
devices containing alkaline substances that precipitate out much of the sulfur dioxide from industrial plants.
sulfur allowances
Allowances designed to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions. Bought and sold in terms of 1 ton of SO2 per year per allowance. Set up by Clean Air Act.
types of UV rays absorbed by ozone
UV-C
tropospheric vs atmospheric zone
troposphere, the ground-level or "bad" ozone is an air pollutant that damages human health, vegetation, and many common materials. It is a key ingredient of urban smog. In the stratosphere, we find the "good" ozone that protects life on earth from the harmful effects of the sun's ultraviolet rays
ozone hole
an area of the ozone layer (near the poles) that is seasonally (Jan.-Apr.) depleted of ozone
indoor air pollutants in developing countries
sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, particulates
sick building syndrome
A buildup of toxic compounds and pollutants in an airtight space; seen in newer buildings with good insulation and tight seals against air leaks
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