Purchase of Alaska
(1867) purchase of Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million, instigated by William Steward. Was significant because it ridded the continent of another foreign power.
(1866) Secretary of State who demanded that the french withdraw from Mexico, and moved 50,000 troops to the Rio Grande until the french left. Also instigated the purchase of Alaska, Midway Islands, and annexed Hawaii and the Dominican Republic.
theories that became applicable in the time in international relations; took on the ideas of manifest destiny
darwinist historian who argued that the US democratic system was clearly the "fittest," and it would eventually spread worldwide.
(1885) author of Our Country; found racist and religious justifications for expansion, based on the theory of evolution.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
captain and author of two books, who developed the theory that with a big modern navy, the US would be good in war, prosperous out of war, and be able to annex places in the Caribbean and make them colonies.
"Influence of Sea Power Upon History"
(1890) Alfred Thayer Mahan's book showing how in the past, nations with good navys were prosperous, etc. Went o prove his theory.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Massachusetts congressman and member of the Naval Affairs Commitee who pushed a warship-making act, pressed for expansionist policies based on Mahan, and advocated to expand and modernize the US naval fleet.
McKinley Tariff Act of 1890
act discontinuing the duty on raw sugar which hurt Hawaiians because it destroyed the advantage they gained through the reciprocity treaty.
a nationalist queen who attempted to rule Hawaii as an absolute monarch. This caused the americans to stage a coup, deposing the queen and setting up a provisional government.
(1850) treaty between US and Great Britain agreeing that neither nation would exclusively control an inter-oceanic canal. Britain violated this by hiring someone to build them a canal, and the US threatened to do things that would also violate the treaty.
General Valeriano Weyler
(1896) Spanish governor of Cuba who placed the rural population in reconcentration camps to deprive the rebels of recruits and thus keep himself in power.
the spanish refugee camps into which cuban farmers were herded to prevent them from providing assistance to rebels fighting for Cuban independance from Spain.
owner of the New York World, who published about the atrocities in Cuba to keep resentment alive and increase his newspaper circulation in the midst of competition.
William Randolph Hearst
owner of the New York Journal, who published about the atrocities in Cuba to keep resentment alive and thus keep his newpaper competitive.
Depuy de Lome letter
letter from spanish minister de Lome to someone in Cuba, which was intercepted and published in te New York Journal. It insulted McKinley and his efforts in Cuba, leading to de Lome's hasty resignation.
(1898) boat that exploded and sand in Cuba, killing many americans. Americans believed it was the Spainards doing, and pressed for war, revelaing US anti-spanish feelings.
(1898) a rider to the war resolution with Spain whereby Congress pledged that it did not intend to annex Cuba, and that it would recognize Cuba's independance from Spain.
admiral who suprise attacked and took over Manila Bay in the first action of the Spanish American War.
name of the army regiments made up of volunteers, who scrambled for supplies, shoving aside other regiments if need be. Teddy Roosevelt led one.
leutenant colonel of a group of Rough Riders, who fought in the Spanish Amerian war.
Treaty of Paris
(1898) treaty that ended the Spanish American war. Provided that Cuba be free from Spain.
those who opposed annexation of the Phillipines, declaring it unconstitutional to do so.
William Jennings Bryan
leader of the Democrats, who opposed and could have convinced others to oppose, the ratification of annexing the Phillipines. However, he said yes so there would be no further war with Spain.
(1899) a reblling of the Phillipines, which US soldiers responded to by sneak attacking, torturing, etc. the Phillipine people.
the man who worked with Dewey to overthrow Spainish rule of the Phillipines, but who later rebelled against the US during the Phillipine Insurrection.
(1900) act establishing a civil government for Puerto Rico, which was neither fully american nor fully independant. Also placed a tariff on Puerto Rican products coming into the US.
Downes vs. Bidwell
(1901) Supreme Court case in which the Foraker tariff was challenged on the grounds that Puerto Rico was part of the US. The ruling upheld the duty.
(1901) a law which stipulatd the conditions for the withdrawal of US forces from Cuba; it also transferred the ownership of the naval base at Guantanamo Bay to the US.
Naval base in Cuba
a stipulation of the Platt amendment that gave the US ownership of the naval base at Guantanamo Bay.
(1904) an addition to the Monroe Doctrine, propounded by President Roosevelt, asserting that the US had a right to intervene in the internal affairs of Latin American nations that had become unstable. Made US the "hemisphere policeman."
Open Door Policy
(1899) a policy propounded by Secretary of State John Hay affirming the territorial integrity of China and a policy of free trade.
the chinese rebellion in which the chinese nationalists drove all foreigners under seige. International rescuers had to come and save these foreigners.
(1907) agreement in which the Japanese promised not to issue passports to laborers seeking to come to the US, in return for no Japanese segregation in the US.
Treaty of Portsmouth
(1905) treaty that ended the Russian Japanese War. Russia and Japan had to give up Manchuria, and each got back and lost some land, etc.
(1901) treaty getting rid of the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty; allowed the US to build a waterway as long as all other nations could use it.
(1903) treaty that, had it been ratified, would have provided the US with a lease on a strip of land in Panama for $10 million and additional annual payments to Columbia.
(1903) treaty that granted the US land to build the Panama canal in exchange for $10 million and annual payments to Panama. Occured shortly after Panama's independance.
President Taft's policy that promoted US economic penetration to underdeveloped nations, especially in Latin America. It sought to strengthen US influence without use of US troops or control.