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46 terms

Joints

All about joints!
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Joints (articulations)
The sites where two or more bones meet.
Synarthroses
Are immovable joints
Ampiartthroses
Slightly movable joints
Diarthroses
Freely movable joints.
Fibrous Joints
The bones are joined by fibrous tissue, namely dense fibrous connective tissue, and no joint cavity is present.
Sutures
Literally "seams," only occur between bones of the skull.
Synostoses
Literally "bony junctions."
Syndesmoses
Joints held together by a ligament where fibrous tissue can vary in length, mostly joined by dense fibrous connective tissue and has NO joint cavity.
Gomphosis
"Peg-in-socket" fibrous joint. There are only one example in the periodontal area.
Cartilaginous Joints
The articulating bones are united by cartilage. They are not highly movable.
Synchondrosis
Immovable, utilizes hyaline cartilage.
Symphysis
Slightly movable articular surface covered with hyaline cartilage that is attached to fibrocartilage.
Synovial
The most abundant joint type in the body, opposing bones separated by fluid filled cavity. Classified as Diathrotic (Free movements)
Purpose of Articular Cartilage
Absorbs compression
Articular Capsule
External Fibrous capsule and Synovial membrane
Synovial Fluid
A fluid that occupies all free spaces within the joint capsule, derived largely by filtration from blood flowing through the capillaries in the synovial membrane. It is essentially lubricant.
Articular Cartilage
Hyaline cartilage covers the opposing bone surfaces and the main function is to absorb compression.
Joint (Synovial Cavity)
A potential space that contains a small amount of lubrication
Reinforcing Ligaments
Thickened parts of the fibrous capsule.
Articular Discs (Menisci)
Wedges of fibrocartilage separating the articular suraces.
Bursae
"Purse" are flattened fibrous sacs lined with synovial membrane and containing a thin film of synovial fluid, occuring where bones rub together.
Tendon Sheath
Essentially an elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon subjected to friction, like a bun around a hot dog. Common where several tendons crowd together within narrow canals.
Muscle Tone
The most important joint stablizer of synovial joints, defined as low levels of contractile activity in relaxed muscles that keep the muscles healthy and ready to react to stimulation.
The 3 Major Joint Classes
Fibrous, Cartilaginous, Synovial
Contraction
Insertion moving toward origin.
Articular Surface
Shallow sockets, non-complimentary surfaces.
Knee consists of 3 Joints
Femoropatellar, Lateral joint, Medial joint
Sprain
When the ligaments reinforcing a joint are stretched and torn.
Dislocation (Luxation)
Occurs when bones are forced out of alignment.
Subluxation
A partial dislocation.
Arthritis
A term that describes over 100 different types of inflamatory or degenerative diseases that damage joints.
Rheumatoid Arthritis
An autoimmune disease that is more prevalent in women that is highly disfiguring.
Osteoarthritis
The most common form of arthritis. 33% of USA have evidence of it. Progressive loss of articular cartilage and synovitis due to enzymatic breakdown of joint structures.
Gout
Disease caused by Uric Acid.
Coracohumeral Ligament
Provides the only strong thickening of the capsule and helps support the weight of the upper limb.
Glenohumeral Ligament
Three of them strengthen the front of the capsule somewhat but are weak and mya even be absent.
Acronym for Rotator Cuff
SITS
The Rotator Cuff
Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres Minor, Subscapularis
Femoropatellar
The intermediate one between the patella and the lower end of the femur.
Lateral Joint (knee)
The outter most joint in the knee.
Medial Joint (knee)
The inner most joint in the knee.
Anterior Cruciate Ligament
Attaches to the anterior intercondylar area of the tibia.
Posterior Cruciate Ligament
Attaches to the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia.
Bursitis
Inflammation of a bursa and is usually caused by a blow or friction.
Tendonitis
IS inflammation of tendon sheaths, typically caused by over use. Symptoms are pain and swelling and treatment is rest, ice, and NSAIDS)
NSAIDs
Non-Steroidal-Anti-Inflammatory-Drug