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AP Human Geography: Industries and Developement
Terms in this set (68)
A process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities. The term often refers to manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close proximity because they share skilled-labor pools and technological and financial amenities.
Large-scale emigration by talented or smart people; usually to MDCs.
A location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another.
An industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs.
An industry in which the final product weighs more or is a greater volume than the inputs.
An organization that provides communications and networking services. A communications and networking "service provider."
Central Business District (CBD)
The downtown or nucleus of a city where retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated; building densities are usually quite high; and transportation systems converge; has high land values.
The ability to produce a good at a lower opportunity cost than another producer.
A model of the spatial structure of development in which underdeveloped countries are defined by their dependence on a developed core region.
A small-scale industry that can be carried on at home by family members using their own equipment.
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
A process through which tendencies for economic growth are self-reinforcing; an expression of the multiplier effect, it tends to favor major cities and core regions over less-advantaged peripheral regions
The dispersal of industry in a previously established agglomeration.
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compares to the number of people active in the labor force.
The improvement in material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology.
A community's collection of basic industries that provide key income.
Big commercial center for importing and exporting commodities.
Business can be done from anywhere.
A highly organized and specialized system for organizing industrial production and labor. Named after automobile producer Henry Ford, Fordist production features assembly-line production of standardized components for mass consumption.
Foreign direct investment
Investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country.
Four Asian Tigers/Dragons
South Korea (largest), Taiwan (moving towards high tech), Singapore (Center for information and technology), Hong Kong(Break of Bulk Point). Because of their booming economies.
A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
The total output of all economic activity in the nation with goods and services.
Gross National Product (GNP)
The total value of all goods and services produced by a country's economy in a given year. it includes all goods and services produced by corporations and individuals of a country, whether or not they are located within the country.
Human Development Index
Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy.
Labor intensive industry
An industry for which labor costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses.
The basic structure or features of a system or organization.
International Trade Model
Approach to economic development that focuses on unique assets and their
global trade to generate capital to improve the overall economy
Just in time delivery
Reliably getting products there just before the customer needs them.
Less developed country (DIRT POOR to be politically incorrect)
The percentage of a country's people who can read and write.
A factory in Mexico that assembles imported materials into finished goods for export.
Market area (hinterland)
The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services.
Market area analysis
Process that is used to determine whether or not to locate a service in a
Measures of development
These are used to distinguish LDCs from MDCs. They include GDP, literacy rate, life expectancy, caloric intake, etc.
More Developed Country (LOTSA CASHMONEY to be politically incorrect)
An organization that manufactures and markets products in many different countries and has multinational stock ownership and multinational management.
North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada.
New International Division of Labor
Transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid less skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries.
North-South Split / Brandt Line
Those nations above equator far richer than those below- rich getting richer, poor getting poorer- and because north dominates global economy, won't change anytime soon.
Moving work to other countries.
Rule by a few, the rich.
Per Capita Gross Domestic Product
A nation's gross domestic product (GDP) divided by its total population. GDP per person.
Adoption by companies of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks.
The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry.
The quantity of goods and services produced from each unit of labor input.
Purchasing Power Parity
A theory of exchange rates whereby a unit of any given currency should be able to buy the same quantity of goods in all countries.
Quality of Life Index
A number or score used to place different countries in rank order based on their quality of life. Various indicators are included, e.g. GNP per person, calorie intake, life expectancy, access to health care, number of doctors per 100,000 etc.
The maximum distance people are willing to travel to get a service.
Services that provide goods for sale to consumers.
A U.S. state that has passed a law preventing a union and company from negotiating a contract that requires workers to join a union as a condition of employment.
An economist who developed Rostow's Stages of Growth.
The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials.
Model that refers to economy of a state that does not require any outside aid, support, or interaction, for survival
Skilled Labor Industry
An industry that requires special skills.
Single Market Manufacturers
Manufacturers that produce goods for one type of market or one market location.
A theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
Special Economic Zones
A specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment.
Rostow's Modernization Model
linear theory of development that developed countries go through a common patterns. 1) Traditional Society, 2) Transitional Stage, 3) Take Off, 4)Drive to Maturity, and 5)High Mass Consumption.
Principle that maintains that the correct location of a production facility is where the net profit is the greatest. Therefore in industry, there is a tendency to substitute one factor of production (e.g., labor) for another (e.g., capital for automated equipment) in order to achieve optimum plant location.
Taxes on imports or exports.
The contrast between the technology available in developed core regions and that present in peripheral areas of underdevelopment.
The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment.
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.
The site where most of the population is engaged in tertiary industries, such as commerce, administration and transport.
This guy created world system theories. Capitalism is a world that unites distant places economically. Different places are assigned different tasks. Used the terms "core", "semi-periphery", and "periphery", to promote dependency theory among nations.
Weber's Least Cost Theory
Minimize transportation cost, minimize labor costs, and Maximize Economies of Agglomeration.
World Systems Theory
A theory originated by Immanuel Wallerstein and illuminated by his three-tier structure, proposing that social change in the developing world is inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world.