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Integrated Science Questions - Unit 4
Terms in this set (70)
How are weather and climate different?
weather is short term and climate is long term
What six factors determine climate?
1. latitude and longitude
3. prevailing winds
4. distance from oceans
5. ocean currents
Which factor has the most effect on climate?
latitude and longitude
What is latitude?
the angular distance of a place north or south of the earth's equator?
What latitude are the equator and the north pole?
north pole: 90
Why do low latitudes seem to have more of an effect on climate than high latitudes?
the amount of solar energy
Where are low latitudes found?
0 - 30 degrees
Where are high latitudes found?
45 - 90 degrees
Why are high latitude regions cooler year-round than low latitude regions?
sunlight hits the earth at an oblique angle and spreads over a larger surface area
Why is there such a variation of year-round temperatures in high latitude regions?
the sun sets for only a few hours in the summer and rises for only a few hours in the winter
Why does cold air sink and what happens to it when it does sink?
It is denser than warm air and it compresses and warms
Why does warm air rise and what happens to it when it does?
it is less dense than cold air and it expands and cools
Of warm air and cold air which one holds more water?
What happens to the water in warm air when it rises?
it condenses into liquid water
When warm air rises, what happens to the air space that was left vacant?
cooler air moves to replace it
What is wind?
the natural movement of air in the form of a current
Wind circulation patterns are useful in determining how much of what an area receives?
Why do areas near the equator receive large amounts of precipitation?
when warm air rises, it has to release water
Why is it hard for cool air to sink near the equator?
hot air is rising
What happens to cool dry air that could not sink near the equator?
it rises and is forced to the poles
What happens in the upper atmosphere around 30 degrees north and south latitudes?
What does warm, dry air that moves across the land surface produce?
Air descending at 30 degrees north and south latitudes go to either one or two places, what are they?
Why are the poles considered "cold deserts"?
there is no liquid water
What is meant by "prevailing winds"?
a wind from the direction that is most usual at a particular place or season
In the northern hemisphere, prevailing winds are deflected in what direction?
In the southern hemisphere, prevailing winds are deflected in what direction?
Between the equator and what latitude are prevailing winds found and what are they referred to as?
30 degrees. trade winds
Where are the "westerlies" found?
30 - 60 degrees
What prevailing winds blow from 60 degrees to the poles?
Why do ocean currents have a large effect on climate?
water holds large amounts of heat
What two things contribute to the movement of ocean currents?
winds and the rotation of the earth
What is el Nino?
the name given to the short term, 6 - 18 months, periodic change in the location of warm and cold water masses in the Pacific Ocean.
What happens during el Nino?
winds in western Pacific Ocean, which are usually weak, strengthen and push warm water eastward. Increased rainfall is produced in the southern half of the US and in equatorial South America.
What happens during la Nina?
the water in the eastern Pacific Ocean is cooler than usual. It causes dry conditions
long-term change in the location of warm and cold water masses in the Pacific Ocean
PDO influences the climate of what two areas?
northern Pacific Ocean and North America
What three things does PDO effect?
ocean surface temperature
How tall is Mount Kilimanjaro and where is it located?
5,896 m. Tanzania
What is another name for height above sea level?
Approximately how many degrees Fahrenheit does the temperature drop for every 1,000 meters increase in elevation on Mount Kilimanjaro?
How does mountain or mountain ranges affect the distribution of precipitation?
by the time the air reaches the leeward side of the mountain, it's dry
What is a "rain shadow"?
a region having little rainfall because of the hills
What is a "solar maximum" and how does it affect the Earth's climate?
the sun emits an increased amount of UV radiation. more ozone is produced.
How do volcanoes affect the Earth's climate?
causes the global temperature to decrease
What causes the Earth's seasons?
the tilt of the earth's axis
Why is the northern hemisphere warmer than the southern hemisphere during June and July?
it is pointed towards the sun
When the northern hemisphere is experiencing summer, what is the southern hemisphere's season?
What is ozone and where is it found?
molecule made of 3 oxygen atoms. stratosphere
What is the function of ozone?
absorbs UV rays from the sun
Why are UV rays harmful?
it can damage genetic material in the cell
What were CFC's used for?
coolants in refrigerators and air conditioners
When were CFC's used?
Where do CFC's become harmful?
What environmental problem do CFC's cause?
they destroy ozone
Where is the ozone hole?
When was it reported to be a problem?
What is a "polar vortex"?
strong circulating winds over Antarctica isolate cold air from surrounding warmer air
What are "polar stratospheric clouds"?
clouds made of water and nitric acid
Why isn't ozone produced from pollution to repair the ozone hole?
it's very chemically reactive
Exposure to UV light makes humans more susceptible to what ailments?
What ids the connection between UV light, phytoplankton, and food chains?
high levels of UV light kills phytoplankton, when they die, food chains are disrupted
What is the connection between UV light and carbon dioxide; and what is a possible ramification of this?
When the UV light kills phytoplankton, the amount of carbon dioxide in the air increases
What animals do UV light have the greatest effect on and why?
amphibians, UV light kills the unprotected DNA
What was the purpose of the Montreal Protocol?
limits production of CFC's
Since we are no longer producing CFC'c, why are they still a problem?
CFC molecules still remain active in the stratosphere for 60 to 120 years
What is the greenhouse effect?
the trapping of the Sun's energy in the atmosphere causing Earth to heat
What are the greenhouse gases?
water vapor, carbon dioxide, CFC's, methane nitrous oxide
What are the two main greenhouse gases?
water vapor and carbon dioxide
What are some of the basic consequences of global warming?
-it makes it harder for polar bears to get food
-floods and droughts are caused
-more heat-related deaths
-allergies and asthma enhances
-enhances water cycle
-areas near storm will flood, away will have drought
-glaciers and ice caps are melting
-drought, which causes more wildfires
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