30 terms

Chapter 51 Animal Behavior

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Terms in this set (...)

behavior
An action carried out by muscles or glands. Under control of the nervous system in response to stimulis. Muscular and hormonal
ethology
The science and study of how animals behave particularly in nature
What is proximate and ultimate causation?
-proximate: answers the mechanistic causation (HOW)
-ultimate: answers the evolutionary causation (WHY)
Fixed pattern
A sequence of unlearned acts that is essentially unchange able and once started it cant stop.
Something an organism is born with
Triggered by sign stimulus
sign stimulus
External trigger to a fixed action pattern
Kinesis
A change in activity in response to a stimulus
Taxis
An oriented movement toward or away from some stimulus
What is Circadian Clock
Internal mechanism that maintains a 24 hour activity rhythm or cycle
Integral part of many animal's nervous system
What are different ways animals communicate
Visually
Chemically
What are pheromones. What info can be transmitted through them
Chemical substances that animals emit through odors
Courtship behavior
Non reproductive behavior
What is meant by fitness
Fitness is the contribution to the gene pool of the next generation
How does Habititation increase fitness
It allows an animals nervous system to focus on stimuli
imprinting
The formation at a specific stage in life of a long lasting behavioral response to a specific limited developmental phase when certain behaviors can be learned.
spatial learning
The memorization of an environments spatial structure based on experience and landmarks
two types of associative learning
Classical and operant
What occurs in operant conditioning
AKA trial and error
learning
An animal learns to assiciate one of its own behaviors with a reward or punishment and tends to repeat/avoid that behavior
foraging behavior
Food obtaining behavior and activities an animal uses to search for, recognize and capture food items
promiscuity
no strong pair-bonds or lasting relationships between males and females
Monogamy
Longer relationship with one male and one female
Polygamy
Single male and many females
Polyandry
Singles females mate with more that one male (when a husband has more than one husband)
What is sexual selection
Form of natural selection in which individuals with certain inherited characteristics are more likely than other individuals to abstain mates
Intersexual selection
Members of one sex choose mates based on certain characteristics
Intrasexual selection
Competition between members of one sex for mates
agnostic behavior
Ritualized contest that determine which competitor access to a resource
altruism
When animals behave in ways that reduce their individual fitness but increases the fitness of other individuals in the populations
Behavior helps and animal:
get food
Find a partner and reproduce
Maintain homestasis
Habituation
Simple form of learning that involves loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no info
Cognitive maps
Internal representation of spatial relationships between objects in an animals surroundings
Classical conditioning
Learning process in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response