Cell Structure and Function

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Creators of the Cell Theory

Schleiden (Botanist), Schwann (Zoologist), Virchow (Physician)

Cell Theory

1- All living things are composed of cells 2- The cell is the basic unit of life 3- All cells come from pre-existing cells

Unicellular Organisms

Consist of only one cell ex) bacteria, amedba, paramecium

Multicellular Organisms

Consists of many cells


Study of cells

Robert Hooke

Examined slice of cork, came up with term "cell"

Plasma Membrane

AKA cell membrane, holds cellular contents together, semi-permeable


Only allows certain substances to enter and leave the cell

Molecules Found in the Plasma Membrane

Lipids, Proteins, Cholesterol, Carbohydrates

Phospholipid Bilayer

Cell Membrane


Water loving


Fear of water


Little organs


Control Center

Nuclear Membrane

AKA Nuclear envelope, two membranes forming a boundary around the nucleus with pores, semi-permeable


Composed of chromatin (DNA) and protein, where ribosomes are produced


Contains hereditary information


all organelles and materials between the cell membrane and the nucleus


Protein rich semi-fluid substance located outside the nucleus and inside the cell membrane (70% Water, 30% Protein {Fats, Carbohydrates})

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

supports other organelles, prepares proteins for secretion, transport materials within a cell

Rough ER

Ribosomes attached to surface

Smooth ER

Ribosomes not attached to surface


"Protein Factory" produces proteins

Golgi Bodies

temporary storage place for proteins, modifies proteins, collects, packages, distributes molecules, structure consists of small groups of parallel membranes


"Power House" controls the release of energy


Folded inner membrane of a Mitochondria


"Suicide Sac" found only in animal cells


Functions in cell reproduction, only in animal cells


"Storage Room" stores materials such as water, slats, proteins, and carbohydrates


Internal support system of the cell composed of microtubules and microfilaments


Cylindrical protein material


Long, thin fibers that function in movement or support of the cell

Cell Wall

composed of Cellulose around the cell membrane, found in plants, fungi, and some unicellular organisms

Middle Lamella

thin plate composed of pectin (plysaccharide) between adjacent plants cells


contains chlorophyll (green) used to trap light energy and convert to chemical energy


contains red, orange, or yellow pigments giving fruits and flowers their color


yellow pigment


red and orange pigment


Colorless plastid where starch molecules are found


plants cells have a single large vacuole that stores water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates


Steady state an organism maintains by self-regulating adjustment

Internal Change Example

Exercise increases the bodies need for oxygen

External Change Example

Temperature, water and food supply, predator escape (stress)

What determines what can enter and leave the cell?

1-Size of molecule 2-Structure of cell membrane 3-Conditions inside/outside the cell 4-Solubility of the substance in water


movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration


If a particular substance is able to diffuse across a membrane

Influences on Diffusion

Concentration, Temperature, Pressure

Penetrate Rapidly

Gases, Water, Fat Solvents

Penetrate Slowly

Monosaccharides, Amino Acids, Fatty Acids, Glycerol

Penetrate Very Slowly


Little or No Penetration

Polysaccharides, Proteins, Lipids


Higher concentration of solutes than the solution to which it is being compared


molecular particulars other than water


Diffusion only referring to water


Solution that contains a lower concentration of solutes than the solution to which it is being compared


solute concentration the same inside and outside the cell

Active Transport

Requires energy, from low to high concentration

Facilitated Diffusion

Passive transport, increases rate of diffusion using carrier proteins

Transport Vesicles

Process of molecules entering the cell through indented areas of plasma membrane


transport of molecules into the cell by transport vesicles (energy)


engulfing particles into the cell by use of cytoplasmic extensions


transport molecules out of the cell by vesicles


Tiny pockets form along the cell membrane that fill with liquid to form vesicles

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