22 terms

Latin American Revolutions

Unit 6, World History
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Simon Bolivar
Nicknamed the Liberator, Creole who led revolutions against the Spanish in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.
Jose San Martin
Creole Revolutionary leader, born in Argentina, who freed Chile and joined Bolivar to free Peru.
Toussaint L'Ouverture
former slave who became a general and led rebel forces against French to gain independence for Hispaniola, which became independent country of Haiti
How were colonial governments set up?
Mirrored (copied) the mother country's govt, conquistadors became Viceroys
Mercantilism
Wealth = power so countries want colonies to provide raw materials for the benefit of the mother country
Encomienda system
A system of production in Spain's New World possessions which granted permission to conquistadors to enslave as many natives needed to work a plantation.
Peninsulares
born in Europe, white, top level of colonial society, held all important military and government jobs
Creoles
born in colonies, European descent, second class in colonial society, controlled most land and business
Mestizos
Native American and European mix, third class in colonial society,worked for Peninsulares and Creoles
Mulattos
persons of mixed european and african ancestry, fourth class in colonial society
Influences for revolution
Enlightenment ideas (who's ideas? which ideas?), watching the success of the American and French revolutions
Enlightenment Influences
John Locke (natural rights, overthrow corrupt govt, consent of governed), Rousseau (individual rights, social contract)
Who led most revolutions?
Creoles
Haitian Independence
Slave revolt led by Toussaint L'Ouverture defeated French army in 1804
First Mexican Independence War
1810 Mestizo and Native army led by Father Miguel Hidalgo fight for independence, defeated by Creole army (why?)
Second Mexican Independence War
1821 Creoles unite in support of Independence
Brazilian Independence
Bloodless Revolt from Portugal in 1822, new monarchy formed by Prince Pedro
Colombian & Venezuelan Independence
1811 declares independence starting the South American Wars of Independence, led by Creole General Simon Bolivar, win independence in 1821, form Gran Colombia
Chilean & Argentinean Independence
Army of Creoles led by Jose San Martin, freed Argentina in 1816, then Chile in 1818
Father Miguel Hidalgo
Mexican priest who established independence movement among American Indians and mestizos in 1810; despite early victories, was captured and executed
Peruvian and Bolivian Independence
Jose San Martin met with Simon Bolivar to fight the Spanish and gained independence in 1825-26
Monroe Doctrine
President Monroe's statement forbidding further colonization in the Americas and declaring that any attempt by a foreign country to colonize would be considered an act of hostility