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17 terms

Cell Processes

Chapter 2 cell book
STUDY
PLAY
diffusion
the movement of particles from an area where their concentration is high to an area where their concentration is low
osmosis
the diffusion of water across a cell membrane
passive transport
the diffusion of particles through proteins from areas where the concentration of particles is high to areas where the concentration is low
active transport
the movement of particles through proteins in the cell membrane against the direction of diffusion; requires cells to use energy
endocytosis
the process in which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses it in a vesicle to bring it into the cell
exocytosis
the process used to remove large particles from a cell
photosynthesis
the process by which plants capture light energy from the sun and convert it into sugar
cellular respiration
the process of producing ATP from oxygen and glucose
cell cycle
the life cycle of a cell
fermentation
the breakdown of sugars to make ATP in the absence of oxygen
chromosome
a coiled structure of DNA and protein that forms in the cell nucleus during cell division
binary fission
the simple cell division in which one cell splits into two
mitosis
nuclear division in eukaryotic cells in which each cell receives a copy of the original chromosomes
homologous chromosomes
chromosomes with matching information
chromatids
identical copies of a chromosome
centromere
the region that holds chromatids together when a chromosome is duplicated
cytokinesis
the process in which cytoplasm divides after mitosis