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Adaptive Funeral Rite

funeral rite that is adjusted to the needs and wants of those involved


the creation of a system that governs through dept and subdivisions managed by sets of officials following an inflexible routine


living or happening in the same period

Cultural Relativism

the emotional attitude that all cultures are equal and pertinent

Cultural Universal

abstract patterns for living and dying which are identifiable in all cultures


abstract patterns for living and dying; learned directly or indirectly


pertaining to demography; the science of vital statistics of populations


male and female have equal rights, duties, and governing power


( aka 'Socialization' ) the method by which social values are internalized or learned


any of the basic division or groups of mankind; distinguished by customs, characteristics, language, rather than physical characteristics


the emotional attitude that one's own race, nation, group, or culture is superior to all others

Family of Procreation

the family established by one's marriage and the production of children


behaviors that are construed as somewhat less compulsive than mores of the same society, and do not call for a strong reaction from the society if violated


individual crafting of products is replaced by manufacture of goods utilizing mass production techniques


a must-behavior, not necessarily a basic or important pattern of a people, but one which is enforced by those governing


must-behavior; the basic/important patterns of ideas and acts of a people. Call for a strong reaction from the society if violated


the tendency of offspring to move away from the area in which they were born

Nuclear Family

includes one man, one woman, and their children, if any


a group of persons forming a single community

Social Function

an event for those who have something in common with each other

Social Stratification

categorization of people by money, prestige, and power


( aka 'Enculturation' ) method by which social values are internalized or learned


a group of persons forming a single community with some interests in common


a division or smaller identifiable unit of a culture


anything to which a socially created meaning is given


must-behavior that dictates the individual must abstain from certain acts

Acute grief

the intense physical and emotional expression of grief occurring as the awareness increases of a loss of someone or something significant.


the individual's ability to adjust to the psychological and emotional changes brought on by a stressful event such as the death of a significant other.


is the feelings and their expression.


the intentional infliction of physical or psychological harm on another


the state of estrangement an individual feels in social settings that are viewed as foreign, unpredictable or unacceptable.


providing a choice of services and merchandise available as families make a selection and complete funeral arrangements, formulating different actions in adjusting to a crisis.


is blame directed towards another person.

Anomic grief

is a term to describe the experience of grief, especially in young bereaved parents, where mourning customs are unclear due to an inappropriate death and the absence of prior bereavement experience

Anticipatory grief

syndrome characterized by the presence of grief in anticipation of death or loss


a state of tension, typically characterized by rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath and other similar ramifications of arousal of the automatic nervous system; an emotion characterized by a vague fear or premonition that something undesirable is going to happen.

Attachment Theory (Blowlby)

it is the tendency in human being to make strong affectional bonds with others coming from the need for security and safety.

Attending (listening)

giving undivided attention by means of verbal and non-verbal behavior.


the act or event of separation or loss that results in the experience of grief.

Cognitive psychology

from the Latin, "to know;" the study of the origins and consequences of thoughts, memories, beliefs, perceptions, explanations, and other mental processes.


according to client-centered counseling, the necessary quality of a counselor being in touch with reality and other's perception of oneself.


characteristic ways of responding to stress.

Counseling (Webster)

advice, especially that given as a result of consultation.

Counseling (Jackson)

any time someone helps someone else with a problem.

Counseling (Rogers)

good communication within and between men; or, good (free) communication within or between men is always therapeutic.

Counseling (Ohlsen)

a therapeutic experience for reasonable health persons.


a highly emotional temporary state in which an individual's feelings of anxiety, grief, confusion or pain impair his or her ability to act.

Crisis counseling

interventions for a highly emotional, temporary state in which individuals, overcome by feelings of anxiety, grief, confusion or pain are unable to act in a realistic, normal manner. Intentional responses which help individuals in a crisis situation.

Death anxiety

a learned emotional response to death-related phenomenon which is characterized by extreme apprehension.

Delayed grief (Worden)

inhibited, suppressed or postponed response to a loss.


the defense mechanism by which a person is unable or refuses to see things as they are because such facts are threatening to the self.

Directive counseling

counselor takes a live speaking role, asking questions, suggesting courses of action, etcl.

Displaced aggression

redirecting anger toward a person or object other than one who caused the anger originally.


feelings such as happiness, anger or grief, created by brain patterns accompanies by bodily changes.

Emotional expression

the outward expression or display of mood or feeling states.

Exaggerated grief (Worden)

persons are usually conscious of the relationship of the reaction to the death, but the reaction to the current experience is excessive and disabling.


to assist understanding of the circumstances or situations the individual is experiencing, and to assist that person in the selection of an alternative adjustment if necessary.


centering a client's thinking and feelings on the situation causing a problem and assisting the person in choosing the behavior or adjustment to solve the problem.


the state of being prevented from attaining a purpose; thwarted; the blocking of the satisfaction of a perceived need by some kind of obstacle.


adjustment, motivational in nature, to be achieved.

Grief counseling

helping people facilitate uncomplicated grief to a healthy completion of the tasks of grieving within a reasonable time frame.

Grief syndrome (Lindermann)

a set of symptoms associated with loss.

Grief therapy (Worden)

specialized techniques which are used to help people with complicated grief reactions.

Griefwork (Lindemann)

a process occurring with losses aimed at loosening the attachment to that which has been lost for appropriate reinvestment.


support or support system provided to the counselee who is seeking an alternative adjustment to problems.


detailed examples of adjustments, choices or alternatives available to the client or counselee, from which a course or action may be selected.

Informational counseling

counseling in which a counselor shares a body of special information with a counselee.

Living will

a document which governs the withholding or withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment from an individual in the event of an incurable or irreversible condition that will cause death with in a relatively short time, and which such person is no longer able to make decisions regarding his/her medical treatment.

Masked grief (Worden)

occur when persons experience symptoms and behaviors which cause them difficulty but they do not see or recognize the fact that these are related to the loss.


any event, person or object that lessens the degree of pain in grief.


the process that initiates, directs, and sustains behavior satisfying physiological or psychological needs.


an adjustment process which involves grief or sorrow over a period of time and helps in the reorganization of the life of an individual following a loss or death or someone beloved.


choice of actions provided through counseling as a means of solving the counselee's problem.


is a relatively stable system of determining tendencies within a individual.

Positive Regard

a phrase coined by Carl Rogers to accept them as they are.


attribution of one's unacceptable thoughts, feelings, or behaviors to someone else.


a relation of harmony, conformity, accord or affinity established in any human interaction.


supplying a logical, rational, socially acceptable reason rather than the real reason for an action.


returning to more familiar and often more primitive modes of coping.

Respect (Wolfelt)

the ability to communicate the belief that everyone possesses the capacity and right to choose alternatives and make decisions.
Searching - preoccupied and intense thoughts about the deceased.


the assumption of blame directed toward one's self by others.

Situational Counseling

related to specific situations in life that may created crises and produce human pain and suffering.

Social facilitation

a phenomenon that occurs when an individual's performance improves because of the presence of others.


Life events and minor hassles that exert pressure or strain.


any event capable of producing physical or emotional stress.


redirection of emotion to culturally or socially useful purposes.


a conscious postponement of addressing anxieties and concerns.

Warmth and caring (Wolfelt)

the ability to be considerate and friendly as demonstrated by both verbal and non-verbal behaviors.


a disconfirming response with more than on meaning, leaving the other party unsure of the responder position


the process of focusing on certain stimuli from the environment


the medium through whicha message passes from sender to receiver


the emotional tome of a relationship as it is expressed in the messages that the partners send and receive


the emotional associations of a term


the objective, emotion-free meaning of a term

empathetic listening

listening in which the goal is to help the speakers solve a problem


physical location and personal history surrounding the communication


words that have more that one dictionary meaning


a pleasant term substituted for a more direct, less pleasant word

evaluative listening

listening in which the goal is to judge the quality or accuracy of the speakers remarks

extemporaneous speech

a speech planned in advance but not memorized presented without notes in a direct, conversational manner

faulty assumption

incorrect assumptions that lead us to believe that we have heard the message before or that the message is too simple or too complex to understand


the discernible response of the receiver


the speech memorized or delivered word-for-word from a manuscript


a speech given "off the top of ones head" without preparation

informational listening

listening to understand another person or idea


a speech that is read word-for-word from a prepared text


a speakers words and actions


the study of how people use space

public communication

one person speaking with limited verbal feedback

public relations

the art of science of establishing and promoting a favorable relationship with the public


decodes the message

relative terms

words that gain their meaning through comparison


the relatively stable set of perceptions each individual holds of himself/herself


deals with the meanings of words


encodes and sends the message


deals with the arrangement of words in a sentence


a complete sentence describing the central idea of a speech, usually found in the first paragraph


An altar attendant


hebrew meaning container; a casket made entirely of wood with no metal parts


In the Roman catholic faith, a man who is a member of a religious order without being ordained or while preparing for ordination


relating to a social or religious organization


the officiant who celebrates the mass in the roman catholic church


the portion of the church surrounding the altar, usually enclosing the clergy; area behind the altar of communion rail.

Chevrah Kadisha

Hebrew meaning "Holy Society". Holy Brotherhood of men or women from a synagogue who care for the dead. (Often referred to as "washers" by laymen.)

Common carrier

any carrier required by law to convey passengers or freight without refusal if the approved fare or charge is paid (airline, train, etc)


fuernal procession


song or poem expressing sorrow of lamentation for the dead

El Malei Rachamin

in the jewish faith, a memorial service; literally "God full of compassion"; usually the last prayer of the funeral service; sometimes referred to as the Malei


relating to a social organization


in jewish faith, a eulogy or true evalutation of the deceased's life that is a part of the funeral service


islam faith, the leader of the local congregation


islam faith, te fuenral or funeral prayer


In the Jewish faith, a prayer recited for the deceased by the direct mourners


jewish faith, the grave


jewish faith, the burial




Hebrew meaning rending or tearing; a symbol of grief, a tear in the upper corner of the garment or a tear on a symbolic ribbon which is worn by the survivors.


jewish faith, funeral procession

liturgical worship (eucharist centered)

a prescribed order or form of worship specific to a particular denomination which will have the eucharist or holy communion as its central element


Bedside prayer performed by minister before the body is moved from place of death or before funeral arrangement are made after embalming - a part of the death rite




vigil service associated with eastern orthodox funerals


in the Church of Christ, Scientist, one authorized to read the lessons and scripture


In Liturgical churches, stated directions in a prayer book or liturgical manual regarding the order of service as approved by the denomination.


in the Roman Catholic faith, a piece of cloth or a medal having religious significance usually worn around the neck


the jewish sabbath; begins at sundown friday and ends at sundown saturday


jewish faith, seven day mourning period


30 day mourning period (jewish faith)


Watcher, one who sits with the body until burial (jewish faith)

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