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557 terms

Texas Funeral Service Exam

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Adaptive Funeral Rite
funeral rite that is adjusted to the needs and wants of those involved
Bureaucratization
the creation of a system that governs through dept and subdivisions managed by sets of officials following an inflexible routine
Contemporary
living or happening in the same period
Cultural Relativism
the emotional attitude that all cultures are equal and pertinent
Cultural Universal
abstract patterns for living and dying which are identifiable in all cultures
Culture
abstract patterns for living and dying; learned directly or indirectly
Demographic
pertaining to demography; the science of vital statistics of populations
Egalitarian
male and female have equal rights, duties, and governing power
Enculturation
( aka 'Socialization' ) the method by which social values are internalized or learned
Ethnic
any of the basic division or groups of mankind; distinguished by customs, characteristics, language, rather than physical characteristics
Ethnocentrism
the emotional attitude that one's own race, nation, group, or culture is superior to all others
Family of Procreation
the family established by one's marriage and the production of children
Folkways
behaviors that are construed as somewhat less compulsive than mores of the same society, and do not call for a strong reaction from the society if violated
Industrialization
individual crafting of products is replaced by manufacture of goods utilizing mass production techniques
Law
a must-behavior, not necessarily a basic or important pattern of a people, but one which is enforced by those governing
Mores
must-behavior; the basic/important patterns of ideas and acts of a people. Call for a strong reaction from the society if violated
Neo-localism
the tendency of offspring to move away from the area in which they were born
Nuclear Family
includes one man, one woman, and their children, if any
Social
a group of persons forming a single community
Social Function
an event for those who have something in common with each other
Social Stratification
categorization of people by money, prestige, and power
Socialization
( aka 'Enculturation' ) method by which social values are internalized or learned
Society
a group of persons forming a single community with some interests in common
Subculture
a division or smaller identifiable unit of a culture
Symbol
anything to which a socially created meaning is given
Taboos
must-behavior that dictates the individual must abstain from certain acts
Acute grief
the intense physical and emotional expression of grief occurring as the awareness increases of a loss of someone or something significant.
Adaptation
the individual's ability to adjust to the psychological and emotional changes brought on by a stressful event such as the death of a significant other.
Affect
is the feelings and their expression.
Aggression
the intentional infliction of physical or psychological harm on another
Alienation
the state of estrangement an individual feels in social settings that are viewed as foreign, unpredictable or unacceptable.
Alternatives
providing a choice of services and merchandise available as families make a selection and complete funeral arrangements, formulating different actions in adjusting to a crisis.
Anger
is blame directed towards another person.
Anomic grief
is a term to describe the experience of grief, especially in young bereaved parents, where mourning customs are unclear due to an inappropriate death and the absence of prior bereavement experience
Anticipatory grief
syndrome characterized by the presence of grief in anticipation of death or loss
Anxiety
a state of tension, typically characterized by rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath and other similar ramifications of arousal of the automatic nervous system; an emotion characterized by a vague fear or premonition that something undesirable is going to happen.
Attachment Theory (Blowlby)
it is the tendency in human being to make strong affectional bonds with others coming from the need for security and safety.
Attending (listening)
giving undivided attention by means of verbal and non-verbal behavior.
Bereavement
the act or event of separation or loss that results in the experience of grief.
Cognitive psychology
from the Latin, "to know;" the study of the origins and consequences of thoughts, memories, beliefs, perceptions, explanations, and other mental processes.
Congruence
according to client-centered counseling, the necessary quality of a counselor being in touch with reality and other's perception of oneself.
Coping
characteristic ways of responding to stress.
Counseling (Webster)
advice, especially that given as a result of consultation.
Counseling (Jackson)
any time someone helps someone else with a problem.
Counseling (Rogers)
good communication within and between men; or, good (free) communication within or between men is always therapeutic.
Counseling (Ohlsen)
a therapeutic experience for reasonable health persons.
Crisis
a highly emotional temporary state in which an individual's feelings of anxiety, grief, confusion or pain impair his or her ability to act.
Crisis counseling
interventions for a highly emotional, temporary state in which individuals, overcome by feelings of anxiety, grief, confusion or pain are unable to act in a realistic, normal manner. Intentional responses which help individuals in a crisis situation.
Death anxiety
a learned emotional response to death-related phenomenon which is characterized by extreme apprehension.
Delayed grief (Worden)
inhibited, suppressed or postponed response to a loss.
Denial
the defense mechanism by which a person is unable or refuses to see things as they are because such facts are threatening to the self.
Directive counseling
counselor takes a live speaking role, asking questions, suggesting courses of action, etcl.
Displaced aggression
redirecting anger toward a person or object other than one who caused the anger originally.
Emotion(s)
feelings such as happiness, anger or grief, created by brain patterns accompanies by bodily changes.
Emotional expression
the outward expression or display of mood or feeling states.
Exaggerated grief (Worden)
persons are usually conscious of the relationship of the reaction to the death, but the reaction to the current experience is excessive and disabling.
Facilitate
to assist understanding of the circumstances or situations the individual is experiencing, and to assist that person in the selection of an alternative adjustment if necessary.
Focusing
centering a client's thinking and feelings on the situation causing a problem and assisting the person in choosing the behavior or adjustment to solve the problem.
Frustration
the state of being prevented from attaining a purpose; thwarted; the blocking of the satisfaction of a perceived need by some kind of obstacle.
Goals
adjustment, motivational in nature, to be achieved.
Grief counseling
helping people facilitate uncomplicated grief to a healthy completion of the tasks of grieving within a reasonable time frame.
Grief syndrome (Lindermann)
a set of symptoms associated with loss.
Grief therapy (Worden)
specialized techniques which are used to help people with complicated grief reactions.
Griefwork (Lindemann)
a process occurring with losses aimed at loosening the attachment to that which has been lost for appropriate reinvestment.
Guidance
support or support system provided to the counselee who is seeking an alternative adjustment to problems.
Illustrating
detailed examples of adjustments, choices or alternatives available to the client or counselee, from which a course or action may be selected.
Informational counseling
counseling in which a counselor shares a body of special information with a counselee.
Living will
a document which governs the withholding or withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment from an individual in the event of an incurable or irreversible condition that will cause death with in a relatively short time, and which such person is no longer able to make decisions regarding his/her medical treatment.
Masked grief (Worden)
occur when persons experience symptoms and behaviors which cause them difficulty but they do not see or recognize the fact that these are related to the loss.
Mitigation
any event, person or object that lessens the degree of pain in grief.
Motivation
the process that initiates, directs, and sustains behavior satisfying physiological or psychological needs.
Mourning
an adjustment process which involves grief or sorrow over a period of time and helps in the reorganization of the life of an individual following a loss or death or someone beloved.
Option
choice of actions provided through counseling as a means of solving the counselee's problem.
Personality
is a relatively stable system of determining tendencies within a individual.
Positive Regard
a phrase coined by Carl Rogers to accept them as they are.
Projection
attribution of one's unacceptable thoughts, feelings, or behaviors to someone else.
Rapport
a relation of harmony, conformity, accord or affinity established in any human interaction.
Rationalization
supplying a logical, rational, socially acceptable reason rather than the real reason for an action.
Regression
returning to more familiar and often more primitive modes of coping.
Respect (Wolfelt)
the ability to communicate the belief that everyone possesses the capacity and right to choose alternatives and make decisions.
Searching - preoccupied and intense thoughts about the deceased.
Shame
the assumption of blame directed toward one's self by others.
Situational Counseling
related to specific situations in life that may created crises and produce human pain and suffering.
Social facilitation
a phenomenon that occurs when an individual's performance improves because of the presence of others.
Stress
Life events and minor hassles that exert pressure or strain.
Stressor
any event capable of producing physical or emotional stress.
Sublimation
redirection of emotion to culturally or socially useful purposes.
Suppression
a conscious postponement of addressing anxieties and concerns.
Warmth and caring (Wolfelt)
the ability to be considerate and friendly as demonstrated by both verbal and non-verbal behaviors.
ambiguous
a disconfirming response with more than on meaning, leaving the other party unsure of the responder position
attending
the process of focusing on certain stimuli from the environment
channel
the medium through whicha message passes from sender to receiver
climate
the emotional tome of a relationship as it is expressed in the messages that the partners send and receive
connotation
the emotional associations of a term
denotation
the objective, emotion-free meaning of a term
empathetic listening
listening in which the goal is to help the speakers solve a problem
environment
physical location and personal history surrounding the communication
equivocal
words that have more that one dictionary meaning
euphemism
a pleasant term substituted for a more direct, less pleasant word
evaluative listening
listening in which the goal is to judge the quality or accuracy of the speakers remarks
extemporaneous speech
a speech planned in advance but not memorized presented without notes in a direct, conversational manner
faulty assumption
incorrect assumptions that lead us to believe that we have heard the message before or that the message is too simple or too complex to understand
feedback
the discernible response of the receiver
formal
the speech memorized or delivered word-for-word from a manuscript
impromptu
a speech given "off the top of ones head" without preparation
informational listening
listening to understand another person or idea
manuscript
a speech that is read word-for-word from a prepared text
message
a speakers words and actions
proxemics
the study of how people use space
public communication
one person speaking with limited verbal feedback
public relations
the art of science of establishing and promoting a favorable relationship with the public
receiver
decodes the message
relative terms
words that gain their meaning through comparison
self-concept
the relatively stable set of perceptions each individual holds of himself/herself
semantics
deals with the meanings of words
sender
encodes and sends the message
syntax
deals with the arrangement of words in a sentence
thematic
a complete sentence describing the central idea of a speech, usually found in the first paragraph
Acolyte
An altar attendant
Aron
hebrew meaning container; a casket made entirely of wood with no metal parts
Brother
In the Roman catholic faith, a man who is a member of a religious order without being ordained or while preparing for ordination
Brotherhood
relating to a social or religious organization
Celebrant
the officiant who celebrates the mass in the roman catholic church
Chancel
the portion of the church surrounding the altar, usually enclosing the clergy; area behind the altar of communion rail.
Chevrah Kadisha
Hebrew meaning "Holy Society". Holy Brotherhood of men or women from a synagogue who care for the dead. (Often referred to as "washers" by laymen.)
Common carrier
any carrier required by law to convey passengers or freight without refusal if the approved fare or charge is paid (airline, train, etc)
Cortege
fuernal procession
elegy
song or poem expressing sorrow of lamentation for the dead
El Malei Rachamin
in the jewish faith, a memorial service; literally "God full of compassion"; usually the last prayer of the funeral service; sometimes referred to as the Malei
Fraternal
relating to a social organization
Hesped
in jewish faith, a eulogy or true evalutation of the deceased's life that is a part of the funeral service
Imam
islam faith, the leader of the local congregation
Jinazah
islam faith, te fuenral or funeral prayer
Kaddish
In the Jewish faith, a prayer recited for the deceased by the direct mourners
Kever
jewish faith, the grave
Kevurah
jewish faith, the burial
Kippah
yarmulke
Kriah
Hebrew meaning rending or tearing; a symbol of grief, a tear in the upper corner of the garment or a tear on a symbolic ribbon which is worn by the survivors.
lavaya
jewish faith, funeral procession
liturgical worship (eucharist centered)
a prescribed order or form of worship specific to a particular denomination which will have the eucharist or holy communion as its central element
Makura-Gyo
Bedside prayer performed by minister before the body is moved from place of death or before funeral arrangement are made after embalming - a part of the death rite
Masjid
mosque
parastas
vigil service associated with eastern orthodox funerals
reader
in the Church of Christ, Scientist, one authorized to read the lessons and scripture
Rubrics
In Liturgical churches, stated directions in a prayer book or liturgical manual regarding the order of service as approved by the denomination.
Scapular
in the Roman Catholic faith, a piece of cloth or a medal having religious significance usually worn around the neck
shabbat
the jewish sabbath; begins at sundown friday and ends at sundown saturday
shiva
jewish faith, seven day mourning period
sholoshim
30 day mourning period (jewish faith)
shomer
Watcher, one who sits with the body until burial (jewish faith)
tachrichim
a hand-sewn white linen shroud in which the deceased members of the Jewish faith are dressed
Tehillim
In the Jewish faith, prayers said before the funeral by a group of friends and the shomer. These prayers come from the book of Psalms.
Transepts
wings of the main part of the church which may serve as small chapels for baptism, weddings, and even small funerals
trisagion
In the Eastern Orthodox faith, three short services or blessings that are part of the funeral rite.
trust account
Account established by one individual to be held for the benefit of another; creates a fiduciary responsibility. (As a method of payment of funeral expenses). Money paid to a funeral home for future services is placed in an account with the funeral home as trustee for the benefit of another.
vestibule
narthex
Yahrzeit
in the jewish faith, the anniversary of the death
Yarmulke (Kippah)
in the jewish faith, the skull cap worn by the men at temple services and funeral services
Yizkor
in the jewish faith, a memorial service recited four times a year
Alloy
a substance composed of two or more metals.
Alternative Container
a non-metal receptacle or enclosure, without ornamentation or a fixed interior lining, designed for the encasement of human remains and made of cardboard, pressed wood, composition material, or pouches of canvas or other material (FTC Definition).
Apron
the lining attached to the undersurface of the foot panel of the casket and/or a component part of the throw (overlay) which extends downward into the body of the casket.
Base Molding
molding along the lowermost edge of the body pannels.
Bi-Unit Pricing
a method of price quotation showing separately the price of the service to be rendered and the price of the casket.
Body
that portion of the casket shell containing the top body molding, body panel, base molding, and casket bottom.
Body Ledge
a molding along the uppermost edge of the body panels.
Body Ledge Flange
the horizontal portion of the top body molding (body ledge) where the gasket is placed on gasket-protected caskets.........
see Top Body Moulding.
Body Lining
material that drapes the inside perimeter of the body of the casket.
Body Panels
composed of the sides and ends of the casket shell.
Bridge (header, cap filler)
component part of cap/lid that is constructed into caskets that display a cut top; provides strength/rigidity at the point of the transverse cut.
Broadcloth
a twill, napped, woolen or worsted fabric with a smooth lustrous face and dense texture; a fabric usually made of cotton, silk, or rayon, woven in a plain or rib weave with a soft, semi-gloss finish.
Bronze
a metal alloy consisting of 90% copper with tin and sometimes zinc comprising the other 10%.
Brushed Finish
bare metal is scratched with an abrasive material and then finished until a smooth high gloss is obtained.
Cap (lid)
the topmost part of the casket shell, including the ogee, crown, pie, and header.
Casket Liner
a removable metal unit that is placed inside a wooden casket shell to provide protective qualities.
Cast Bronze
molten bronze poured into a mold and allowed to cool.
Cast Hardware
the most expensive hardware production method, in which molten metal is poured into a mold, allowed to cool, and then removed from the mold.
Consignment
to give to an agent to be cared for or sold.
Consumer Value Index (CVI)
the percentage derived by dividing wholesale cost of the merchandise by the retail price of the merchandise (wholesale/retail).
Copper
a malleable, ductile, metallic element having a characteristic reddish-brown color.
Copper Deposit
a casket made from a core of copper metal to which copper ions are combined by an electrolytic process.
Corrugated container
a container used to hold a dead human body which is constructed out of a type of cardboard, which is made with a series of alternate folds and ridges.
Cove (roll, puffing)
a component part of the casket interior which lines the rim (ogee) and surrounds the cap panel.
Crepe
a thin, crinkled cloth of silk, rayon, cotton, or wool.
Crinkled
an exterior casket finish in which the metal is coated with a substance that wrinkles as it dries; usually used on less expensive caskets.
Crown (swell)
the uppermost part of the cap, extending from rim to rim; everything above the rim.
Crushed Interior
a form of casket interior created by placing the lining material on a metal form, weights added, the material steamed, and then attached to a suitable upholstery (backing) material.
Dome
the top of an air seal burial vault which entraps air as it is put in position it also supports the weight of the earth above.
Double Seal
a method of sealing burial vaults that utilizes the principle of the air seal in conjunction with an epoxy material at the juntion of the dome and the base of the vault.
Ear (lug)
the part of the casket handle that is attached to the casket body.
Elliptic
a casket having ends in the shape of a half circle.
Extendover (large body)
the poriton of the casket interior which extends over the top body molding (body ledge) for aesthetic value.
Ferrous Metal
any metal formed from iron (steel or stainless steel).
Fishtail (pie)
the wedge shaped portion of the cap (lid) at each end of the crown.
Fixed Multiple (Straight Line)
a price determination method wherby the casket cost is multiplied by a constant factor.
Flaring Square
casket shell design in which the sides and ends of the casket body flare out from the bottom to the top; a casket shell design that is narrower and shorter at the bottom than at the opening of the top.
Flat Finish (Matte Finish)
a finish used on casket exteriors that is free of gloss; dull, lusterless surface: no shine or gloss.
Fold (gimp)
a strip of metal, plastic, or cloth that is attached to the inside of the panel, covering the area at which point the roll (cover) is anchored.
Foot-Candle
the amount of illumination produced by a source of one candle at a distance of one foot.
Fractional display
use of poritons of caskets (1/2, 1/4, 1/8) in the selection room vs. full sized caskets.
Functional Pricing
a method of price quotation by which the charges are broken down into several major component parts, such as services, facilities, automobiles, and merchandise.
Galvanized
steel that has been coated with zinc for increased resistance to rust.
Gasket Channel
found on cut top gasket caskets; the function is to hold the transverse gasket to seal the space between the head and foot caps.
Graduated Recovery
the return of money produced by varying the amount expected on each selection.
Hardboard
particles of wood bonded together with waterproof glue; the different types are distinguished by the size and shape of the particles of wood used..........
see Composition Board.
Head Panel
a component part of the casket interior which is inside the head portion of the cap; no distinctionis made between the head panel and foot panel in full couch caskets.
Hinge Cover (skirt)
that portion of the casket interior covering the hinges that attach the casket cap to the casket body; usually extends from the roll and becomes a part of the body lining.
Inner Panels
functional or ornamental covering that usually covers the foot end of the casket in the full couch casket; may be located at both the head and foot of the full couch casket.
Laminates
made by uniting superimposed layers of different materials.
Linen Weave
a fabric woven to look like linen; used as a casket lining material.
Lug
the part of the casket handle that is attached to the casket body.
Masselin
apressed paper in sheet forml used in casket construction as a backing (upholstery) material.
Matte Finish (Flat Finish)
a finish used on casket exteriors that is free of gloss; dull, lusterless surface: no shine or gloss.
Merchandise Value Ratio (MVR)
the relationship between the wholesale cost of the merchandise and the total cost (both service and merchandise) to the consumer.
MVR (Merchandise Value Ratio)
the relationship between the wholesale cost of the merchandise and the total cost (both service and merchandise) to the consumer.
Non-Ferrous Metal
any metal which is not formed from iron.
Ogee (Rim)
an "S"-shaped molding that is a component part of the casket cap.
Ogee Flange (Rim Flange)
the turned under edge or horizontal poriton of the rim that comes into contact with the gasket or body ledge flange (top body molding flange).
Pie (Fishtail)
the wedge-shaped portion of the cap (lid) at each end of the crown.
Plated
the finish created when a base metal is coated by another metal via an electrolytic process; it is identified when used in casket construction by the term "deposit" as in "copper deposit".
Plush
a woven cloth with a nap exceeding 1/8th inch.
Polymer
a compound, similar in appearance to plastic, which has a high molecular eight creating an extremely durable substance.
Puffing (Cove, Roll)
a component part of the casket interior which lines the rim (ogee) and surrounds the cap panel.
Range
the upper and lower limits of a series of numbers.
Rim (ogee)
an "S"-shaped molding that is a component part of the casket cap.
Rim Flange (Ogee Flange)
the turned under edge or horizontal poriton of the rim that comes into contact with the gasket or body ledge flange (top body molding flange).
Roll (Cove, Puffing)
a component part of the casket interior which lines the rim (ogee) and surrounds the cap panel.
Satin Finish
a type of semi-luster or semi-gloss casket finish that is smooth with well defined fine lines or striations.
Sectional (Concrete Sectional)
a grave liner consisting of six or eight slabs of unfinished concrete placed around the casket.
Selected Hardwood (salix)
A casket constructed from many different species of wood (ex: poplar, cottonwood); sometimes referred to as salix or willow; the component parts of a single casket will not necessarily be constructed of the same species of wood.
Semi Gloss
a low-luster finish.
Semi-Tailored
a combination of a tailored interior with one or more other styles of interior; for effect.
Shell
the component parts that compose the cap (lid) and body of the casket.
Shirred Interior
a style of casket interior in which the material is drawn or gathered in parallel fashion in a particular sewing process.
Single Hinged Panel
a casket in which the cap is in two pieces: the rim (ogee) and foot panel from one piece,which is hinged to the top body molding; the head panel forms the second piece, which is hinge to the rim (ogee).
Skirt (Hinge Cover)
that portion of the casket interior covering the hinges that attach the casket cap to the casket body; usually extends from the roll and becomes a part of the body lining.
Softwood
any light easily cut wood; cone bearing or coniferous.
Solid Wood
a product that, excepting some hardware components, is made from lumber cut into boards from the trunk of a tree; the casket shell has no components formed from wood by-products.
Stainless Steel
a metal alloy of steel, chromium, and sometimes nickel which is used in casket construction; noted for its ability to resist rust.
Stamped Hardware
a hardware production method of lesser expense whereby the casket hardware sections are pressed out on a hydraulic press.
State Casket (Verticle Side Square)
a casket body style with the body side at a 90-degree angle to the bottom.
Steel
a metal alloy consisting mainly of iron and carbon; used in caskets; it is low in carbon which keeps it soft and malleable; commercial steel contains carbon in an amount up to 1.7% as an essential alloy constituent.
Straight Line (Fixed Multiple)
a price determination method wherby the casket cost is multiplied by a constant factor.
Sundry Items
the various miscellaneous items provided or used to complement the services of a funeral director.
Swell (Crown)
the uppermost part of the cap, extending from rim to rim; everything above the rim.
Tailored Interior
a tightly drawn form of casket interior style.
Threaded Fastener
a screw type fastener.
Tip
the decorative or ornamental part of the casket handle that covers the exposed ends of the bar.
Top Body Molding Flange (Body Ledge Flange)
the horizontal portion of the top body molding (body ledge) where the gasket is placed on gasket-protected caskets.
Top Body Molding (Body Ledge)
a molding along the uppermost edge of the body panels.
Top Seal
in burial vault, method of sealing that utilizes an epoxy compound in conjunction with a tongue-in-groove closure at the top of the vault.
Transfer Container
an outer enclosure utilized for the for the protection of casketed remains during transportation.
Tufted Interior
style of casket interior created by placing a padding material between a lining material and a backing material, with subsequent stitches taken, forming small raised puffs; carriage tufting and biscuit tufting are teh two most common types used in caskets.
Twill Weave
a textile weave in which threads are crossed over one another to give an appearance of diagonal lines.
Vertical Tablet
a type of cemetery monument in which the dies is taller than it is wide.
Wood Veneer
created by gluing a thin layer of wood of superior value or excellent grain to an inferior wood.
Wood Wool
wood shavings.
Bequest
a gift of personal property by will
Case Law
court decisions that establish precedent principles
Codicil
an addition or amendment of a last will and testament executed with the same formality as the will.
Common Carrier
any carrier required by law to convey passengers or freight without refusal if the approved fare or charge is paid (airline, train, etc)
Common Law
a system of jurisprudence based on judicial precedents rather than statutory laws
Constructive Custody
having the authority to control disposition although another party has physical possession
Creditor's Claim
a legal process used by one wishing to collect a debt form an estate
Custodian
a funeral director becomes the legal protector of a dead human body from the time of removal until final disposition
Degree of Kindred
relationship to the decedent of his relatives; each generation is one degree, counting to a common ancestor.
Devise
a gift of real estate made by will
Devisee
one who inherits real estate under a will
Doctrine of Stare Decisis
a policy of courts to stand by a precedent and apply it to all future cases where the facts are substantially the same. To stand by things decided.
Durable power of attorney
exists when person executes a power of attorney which will become or remain effective in the event he or she should later become disabled.
Escheat
forfeiture of a decedent's property to the state in the absence of heirs.
Estate
the property of a deceased person, both real and/or personal
Ethics
A set of moral principles or values governing individuals or groups; conforming to accepted professional standards of conduct.
Householder
one who owns or controls real estate where death occurs.
Insolvent estate
the condition of the estate of a deceased person which is unable to pay the debts of the decedent and/or the estate.
Intestate
the state or condition of dying without having made a will.
Intestate succession
the succession of an heir at law to the property and estate of his ancestor when the latter has died without a will
Inventory (in Probate)
listing and valuation of a decedent's assets by personal representative of the estate
Legacy
bequest
Legatee
one who inherits personal property under a will
Liability
responsibility for wrongful acts (torts)
Moral turpitude
crime involving a willful wrongdoing, usually a felony.
Nuisance
a landowner's use of property which interferes with the public's or other landowner use of his property.
Nuisance in Fact
act, occupation, or structure that is not a nuisance per se, but may become a nuisance by circumstances of the location or manner in which it is operated.
Nuisance Per Se
an act, occupation, or structure which is a nuisance at all times under all circumstances. It may prejudicial to public morals, dangerous life, or injurious to public rights.
Nuncupative Will
oral will dictated by testator during last illness before appropriate witnesses to dispose of personal property and afterwards reduced to writing.
Ordinance
a law passed by a municipal governing body pertaining to matters not already covered by Federal or State law (zoning, building, safety ordinances, etc)
Per Capita
the method of dividing up an estate by which an equal share is given to each of a number of persons, all of whom stand in equal degree to the decedent.
Personal Service Contract
contract which involves such personal knowledge, skills or confidence that it can only be performed by the person with whom it is made; a contract whereby both parties should recognize that any breach will usually cause anguish.
Per Stirpes
the method of dividing an estate where a class or group takes the share which the deceased would have been entitled to, and not as so many individuals, i.e. by right of representation.
Probate
the act or process of proving a will
Probate Court
a court having jurisdiction over estates.
Quasi Contract
a fictional contract applied by a court for a person who is unable to contract for himself (i.e. medical care, death); an obligation which law creates in the absence of agreement; is invoked by courts where there is unjust enrichment. The function of quasi contract is to raise an obligation in law where,in fact, the parties made no promises.
Quasi-Property Theory
the accepted theory of legal status of a dead human body. Rights associated with the body are as if it were property for the purpose of disposition only.
Replevin
an action to recover possession of personal property
Restrictive Covenant
provision in a deed limiting the use of property and prohibiting certain uses.
Rules and Regulations
enactments by an administrative body governing the jurisdiction of that agency.
Secured Claim
a claim that is supported by a pledge of a assets belonging to the debtor.
Solvent Estate
an estate in which the assets exceed the liabilities.
Stare decisis
a policy of courts to stand by a precedent and apply it to all future cases where the facts are substantially the same; to stand by things decided.
Statute
a particular law enacted by a legislative body
Statutory law
law created by legislative bodies in contrast to law generated by judicial opinions (case law) and administrative bodies
Testate
the condition of leaving a will at death
Trustee
one who holds a position of trust to beneficiary; in funeral arrangements, the person who has the right to control the funeral on behalf of all survivors.
Uniform Probate Code
a model law to achieve uniformity to probate proceedings throughout the U.S.
A method of classifying inventory items with categories that are of high value, less costly, and/or low-cost items.
ABC Method.
Regulating the activities or course of activities of an organization; to guide and/or supervise the activities of an organization. Another term for directing.
Actuating.
A grouping of accounts receivable into age categories based upon the length of time they have been outstanding on the company record.
Aging Schedule.
A written document that explicitly states the rights and duties of partners in a partnership.
Articles of Partnership.
A measure of the accounts receivable turnover.
Average Collection Period.
A qualification that is absolutely necessary for the job; it is an allowed and approved reason for discrimination.
Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ).
The identification for a product.
Brand.
The point at which total sales revenue equals total costs.
Break-Even Analysis.
The current asset items consisting of cash, inventories, and accounts.
Circulating Capital.
A clause in an insurance policy under which the insured agrees to maintain insurance equal to some specified percentage of the property value or otherwise to assume a portion of any loss.
Coinsurance Clause.
A type of credit granted by retailers that is used by individuals or families for satisfaction of their own wants.
Consumer Credit.
The emphasis placed on providing to customers products and services that are safe, reliable, and honestly advertised; also, a social movement that seeks to strengthen the rights of consumers relative to sellers.
Consumerism.
Those individuals who flee the bureaucratic environment of big business by going into business for themselves.
Corporate Refugees.
The current assets divided by the current liabilities; a measure of the liquidity of the business.
Current Ratio.
Any borrowed or loaned capital invested in the business that must be repaid to creditors.
Debt Equity (Debt Capital, Borrowed Capital).
Insurance policy provision that makes the insurer liable only for losses in excess of the stated deductible.
Deductible Clause.
Another term for Actuating.
Directing.
A business valuation approach which centers on estimating the amount of potential income that may be produced by the business in the next year.
Earnings Approach.
The wealth produced in or near a community that provides employment and income to the local population.
Economic Base.
The quantity to be purchased which minimizes total costs.
Economic Order Quantity (EOQ).
Life insurance that allows the insured, rather than the beneficiary, to collect the face value of the policy upon maturity or to collect that value in annual payments.
Endowment Life Insurance.
A management function which compares organizational and individual performance with predetermined standards or expected results.
Evaluating (Controlling).
Obtaining cash before payments are received from customers by selling off one's account receivables to a third party.
Factoring.
An intangible asset such as the name of a funeral home; also, an intangible asset which enables a business to earn a profit in excess of the normal rate of profit earned by other businesses of the same kind.
Goodwill.
The introduction of something new; a new idea, method or device.
Innovation.
Balance of costly goods paid for by small monthly (fractional) payment over a period of time.
Installment Credit (Closed End Credit).
Uneventful protection for the small business or small business owner in regard to monetary compensation in the event that a business and/or personal peril is experienced.
Insurance.
A type of asset that is not able to be physically touched but is retained by a small business because of its geniune value appeal.
Intangible Asset.
The dependency of businesses on one another.
Interdependence.
Life insurance that protects a firm against losses due to the death of a key employee.
Key-Person Life Insurance.
The anticipated value of an asset that would be realized in case of liquidation of the business.
Liquidation Value (Market Value) Approach.
A business that makes finished goods from raw materials by hand or machinery.
Manufacturing.
The process of planning and executing the developement, pricing, promotion, and distribution of an organization's goods and/or services.
Marketing/Marketing Management.
A study that is used by a business to determine where the potential customers are.
Market Survey.
An approach used in business valuation that determines value based upon previous sales of similar businesses.
Market Value Approach.
A comparison of profit and each item of expense in the income statement expressed as a percentage of sales income; the operating ratios can be compared to the industry standard in regard to measuring the possible growth of the business.
Operating Ratios.
The fair market price to purchase similar assets.
Replacement Value Approach.
A business that provides a service as opposed to a product.
Service Business.
A physical asset that possesses genuine value.
Tangible asset.
Life insurance that has no cash value when the policy expires.
Term Life Insurance.
The efforts of all members of an organization directed to ensure that quality in the production of goods and services is achieved.
Total Quality Management (TQM).
A form of credit that is extended by one business to another business to help finance distribution of producer's goods.
Trade Credit.
A combination of whole life insurance and term life insurance.
Universal Life Insurance.
A cost that is uniform per unit, but fluctuates in total in direct proportion to change in the related total activity or volume.
Variable Expense.
Anyone who invests in, or financially sponsers, a new business.
Venture Capitalist.
Life insurance that gives lifetime protection to the insured person.
Whole Life Insurance.
The difference between current assets and current liabilities.
Working Capital (Circulating Capital).
Acceptance
an agreement to an offer resulting in a contract
Accord and Satisfaction
an agreement made and executed in satisfaction of the rights one has from a previous contract
Agent
the party appointed by the principal to enter into a contract with a third party on behalf of the principal
Alien Corporation
one that is incorporated in a foreign country
Answer
official document detailing a defendant's defense
Antitrust
laws which seek to promote competition among businesses
Appellate Court
court hearing cases appealed from lower courts
Assignee
the party to whom the assignment is made
Assignment
a means whereby one party conveys rights to another person who is not a party to the original contract
Assignor
the party making the assignment of rights
Bailee
the party who acquires possession but not the title of personal property in a bailment
Bailment
the transfer of possession but not the title of personal property by one party to another, under agreement
Bailor
the party who gives up possession, but not title of property in a bailment
Bearer
a person in possession of an instrument
Bearer Paper
a commercial paper payable to bearer
Bill of Lading
the contract existing between the consignor (shipper) and the carrier
Close Corporation
a designation which applies to a corporation in which outstanding shares of stock and control are held by a limited number of people (often members of the same family)
Commercial Paper
( aka 'Negotiable Instrument' ) a writing drawn in a special form which can be transferred from person to person as a substitute for money or as an instrument of credit
Common Stock
stock that entitles owner vote
Compensatory Damages
an award paid to the injured party to cover the exact amount of their loss, but no more
Complaint
( aka 'petition' ) a written request initiating a civil suit
Consideration
that which the promisor demands and receives as the price for a promise
Consignee
one to whom goods are shipped by common carrier
Consignor
one who ships goods by common carrier
Contractual Capability
the necessity that the parties desiring to enter into contracts meet all requirements
Creditor Beneficiary
the person to whom the promise of a contract owes an obligation or duty which will be discharged to the extent that the promisor performs the promise
Disaffirmance
the repudiation of, or election to avoid, a voidable contract
Discharge
termination of a contract by performance, agreement, impossibility, acceptance of breach, or operation of law
Donee Beneficiary
a third party beneficiary to whom no legal duty is owed and for whom performance is a gift
Draft
a written order signed by one person requiring the person to whom it is addressed to pay a particular sum to the bearer, either on demand or at a certain time
Drawee
the person, company, or financial institution ordered to pay a draft
Drawer
the person who executes any draft
Duress
a means of removing one's free will; obtaining consent by means of threat to do harm
Executed Contracts
those contracts in which the parties have fulfilled the terms
Express Authority
the authority of an agent, stated in the document or agreement creating the agency
Express Contract
a contract in which the parties express their intentions, either orally or in writing, at the time of the agreement
Express Warranty
the actual and definite statement of a seller, either verbally or in writing, guaranteeing a standard or level of performance
Fiduciary
a relationship of trust and confidence, such as that which exists between partners in a partnership
Future Goods
those goods which are not in existence at teh time a contract is agreed to
General Agent
one who is authorized to execute the principal's business of a particular kind, or all the principal's business at a particular place, if not all of one kind
Goods
movable tangible personal property
Holder
one in possession of commercial paper
Identified Goods
the goods specified by the buyer and seller
Implied Authority
an agent's authority to do things not specifically authorized in order to carry out express authority
Injunction
a judicial order or decree forbidding the performance of a certain act
Intangible Personal Property
evidences of ownership of personal property such as stock of corporations, checks and copyrights
Limited Partner
partner whose liability for the firm's debts is limited to the amount of his/her investment
Liquidated Damages
a provision in a contract fixing the amount of the damages to be paid in the event one party breaches the contract
Maker
the person who executes a promissory note
Merchant
a person who deals in goods of the kind, or otherwise by occupation purports to have knowledge or skill peculiar to the practices or goods involved in the transaction
Negotiable Instrument
( aka 'Commercial Paper' ) a writing drawn in a special form which can be transferred from person to person as a substitute for money or as an instrument of credit
Negotiation
the act of transferring ownership of a negotiable instrument to another party
Nominal Damages
a token award to symbolize vindication of the wrong done to the plaintiff; generally, the award is $1.00
Novation
the change of one of the parties to a contract at the mutual agreement of the original parties
Order Paper
a commercial paper made payable "to the order of"; the word "order" must be used
Ordinances
laws enacted by local municipalities
Par-value Stock
stock with an assigned face value
Principal
a party who appoints a second party to serve as an agent
Promissory Estoppel
an equitable doctrine that prevents the promisor from revoking the promise when the promisee justifiably acts in reliance upon the promise to his detriment
Usurious
exceeding the maximum rate or interest which may be charged on loans
accounting cycle
the process involved in journalizing, posting to the ledger, taking a trail balance, preparing statements, making adjusting and closing entries, and preparing a post-closing trail balance, which is repeated each fiscal period
accounting equation
A = L + OE
assets=liabilities+owener's equity
account receivable
an unwritten promise by a customer to pay at a later date for goods sold or services rendered
accounts receivable turnover
measures how many times per year receivables are collected.
-net credit sales divided by Average Accounts receivable
-average receivable (Beginning Accounts Receivable minus (-) ending accounts receivable) divided by 2
accrual accounting
recording in each fiscal period applicable expenses, whether paid or not, and income earned
accrued expense
an expense incurred in operating a business during an accounting period but not yet paid
accrued income
income actually earned during an accounting period but which will not be received until a future period
acid test ratio/quick ratio
quick assets divided by current liabilites
activity analysis
measures how efficiently a firm is utilizing its assets
adjusted trail balance
a trail balance taken after adjusting entries have been recorded
adjusting entries
entries made at the conclusion of a fiscal period to bring accounts up to date
age of accounts receivable
measures the average time required to collect receivables
-365 divided by accounts receivable turnover
age of inventory
measures the average time required to sell inventory
- 365 divided by Inventory turnover
allowance for doubtful accounts (allowance for bad debts)
a contra account utilized to accumulate totals against accounts recievable
analyzing
determining the fundamental significance of business transactions so that financial information may be properly processed
assets
property of monetary value owned by a business
balance sheet (Statement of Financial Position; Statement of Financial Condition)
a formal financial statement illustrating the assets, liabilities, and owner's equity of a business as of a specific date (A=L+C-W)
balance sheet common-size statements/percentage method
express the major items in the balance sheet as a percent of the total assets and compare with previous fiscal periods
balance sheet comparative forms
record the balance sheet data for two or more comparable periods on the same form so that the information can be readily compared
bankers method/360 day method
a method of computing interest based on the assimption that there are 360 days in a year
book value/undepreciated cost
the cost of a fixed asset less its accumulated depreciation
budget
a formal written statement, which may be based upon adjusted historical data, of management's plans for the future expressed in financial terms
capital (net worth; owner's equity; proprietorship)
the amount by which the total assets exceed the total liabilities of a business; an owner's financial interest in a business
cash basis accounting
an accounting practice in which revenue is not recognized in the accounting records until received and in which expenses are not recognized until paid
cash payments journal
a book of orginal entry in which only cash disbursements are recorded
cash receipts journal
a book of original entries in which only cash receipts are recorded
chart of accounts
a list of all the account titles and the account numbers assigned to them
classifying
the sorting of the many business transactions in on orderly and systematic manner
closing entries
entries made at the end of each reporting period to transfer the balances of the temporary owner's equity accounts to the permanent owner's equity account and to reduce the balance in the temporary owner's equity accounts to zero in preparation for the next accounting period
combination journal
a book of original entry which combines into one journal the features of two column general journal and a special journal
compound journal entry
an accounting entry that involves more than two accounts
contra account
an account designed to accumulate totals to offset a related account
credit
the right side of a standard account
credit balance
a condition that occurs when the total of the credits in an account is larger than the total of the debits in that account
credit memorandum
a source document that grants credit to a buyer for purchase return or purchase allowance
cross referencing
a process of entering the journal page number in the ledger and the ledger account number in the journal
current assets
cash or other assets that will be converted into cash or consumed within one year
current asset ratio
current assets divided by current liabilities
current liabilities
debts of a business that are generally paid within one year
current ratio
current assets divided by current liabilities
debit
the left side of a standard account
debit balance
a condition that occurs when the total of the debits in an account is larger than the total of the credits in that account
deposits in transit
deposits that have been made and added to depositor's checkbook, but which have not yet been listed on the bank statement
depreciation
the loss in value of a fixed asset due to wear and tear and the passage of time;or a method of matching the cost of a fixed asset against the revenues that the fixed asset will help produce during its useful life
depreciation expense
that portion of the orignal cost of a fixed asset that is assigned as an expense to the reporting period expected to benefit from it use
discount period
a specific number of days during which a discount is available if the account is paid
double entry accounting/double entry bookkeeping
a process of recording equal debits and credits for a single business transaction
drawee
a person or concern, usually a bank, that has been ordered to make a payment of a check or draft
drawer
a person (depositor) who signs a check, ordering a payment made
drawing account/owner withdrawl
a separate owner's equity accoung in which withdrawls of cash or other assets by the owner for personal use are recorded
expense
a decrease in assets, other than withdrawls by the owner, which result from efforts to produce revenues
face of note
the principle sum the maker of a note promises to pay
federal insurance contributions act
the federal act which requires most employers and employees to pay taxes to support the federal social security program
federal umemployment tax act
the federal act imposed upon each employer for the purpose of financing the administration costs of the federal and the state unemployment compensation programs
F.I.C.A
abbreviation for Federal Insurance Contributions Act
final processing/reporting
the process of communicating the results achieved during an accounting period to others
fiscal period
a period of time covered by an income statement
fixed assets/long term assets
property of a relatively permanent nature used in the operation of a business and not intended for resale
fixed liabilities/long term liabilities
liabilities that are not due and payable within one year
footing/pencil footing
a total, written in small pencil figures, under the last entry in a column of an account
general journal
a book of original entry in which business transactions are recorded in chronological order
general ledger
the book of accounts
gross earnings/gross pay
income before any deductions have been made
gross profit/gross margin
net sales minus the cost of goods
gross profit percentage
gross profit divided by net sales
in balance
a condition in which the total of the debits and the total of the credits are equal in an account
income/revenue
an inflow of assets as a result of selling a product or providing a service
Income Statement Common-Size Statements/ Percentage Method
express the major items in the Income Statement as a percent of Net Sales and compare with previous fiscal periods
Income Statement Comparative Forms
record the income statement data for two or more Comparable periods of the same form so that the information can be readily compared
Income Statement/ Profit and Loss Statements/ Statement of Operations/Operating Statement
a formal financial statement which presents the income, expenses, and resulting net profit or net loss for a given period (R-E) (Revenue-Expenses=Net Income or Net Loss)
Income Tax
a tax levied on the earnings of individuals and businesses by Federal, state, and local governments
information processor
bookkeeper
intangible assets
those assets that cannot be touched or grasped (examples include patents, copyrights and goodwill)
interpreting
explaining the significant events or developments that occur, usually taking the form of analysis and comparisons
inventory turnover
the number of times the average inventory has been sold or used up (turned over) during a period. Calculatin: 365/cost of goods sold for period/average inventory. Note: average inventory=(beginning inventory+ending inventory) divided by 2
inventory
a source of document showing quantity, description, prices of items, total amount of purchase and the terms of payment
inventory (merchandise)
good purchased for resale at a profit
journalizing
the process of recording business transactions in a journal
ledger
a book of accounts
liabilities
any debts that a business owes
liquidity analysis
measures the ability of the firm to meet its current obligations
long term assets
Fixed assets
long term liabilities
Fixed liabilities
loss from uncollectible accounts
bad debts expense
maker
an individual who promises to pay on a promissory not' an individual who signs a promissory note
maturity date
the date on which payment is due on a promissory note
merchandise/inventory
goods purchased for resale at a profit
net income/net profit
the difference between gross profit and expenses when gross profit is larger
net loss
the difference between gross profit and expenses when expense is larger
net pay/net earnings
gross pay less payroll deductions;employees take home pay
net purchases
purchases minus purchase returns and allowances minus purchase discounts
net sales
sales minus sales returns and allowances minus sales discount
net worth
capital
note payable
a written promise to pay a creditor a certain amount in the future
note receivable
a written promise of a customer to pay the business a sum of money at a future date
operating statement
income statement
original cost basis
the amount originally paid for a depreciable asset
other expenses
expenses incurred that are not the direct result of regular trading activities of a business
other income
income received that is not the direct result of regular trading activities of a business
owner's equity/net worth/capital/proprietorship
the amount by which the total assets exceed the total liabilities of a business; an owner's financial interest in a business
post-closing trail balance
a work paper prepared after all the owner's temporary equity accounts have been closed and all permanent accounts have been balanced and ruled, proving the equality of the debits and credits
posting
the transferal of data from the journal to the ledger
prepaid expenses
items that are considered to be assets when acquired, but which will become expenses when consumed or expired
principal
the face value of a promissory note upon which interest is computed
profit margin
net income divided by bet sales
profitability analysis
provides evidence concerning the earnings potential of a company and how effectively the firm is being managed
proprietorship
capital
quick assets
cash, marketable securites,a ccounts,a nd notes receivable
quick ratio
acid test ratio
rate
the annual percentage rate used to compute interest
reporting
final processing
sales returns and allowances
a temporary owner's equity contra account used to record credit given to a customer for shortages damaged goods
source document/business paper
the first record of a business transaction (examples include check stubs, receipts, sales invoices, cash register tapes, etc)
special journal
a special journal designed to accumulate data about only one kind of business transaction
statement of account
a report sent to each other customer, usually at the end of the month, which indicates the status of their account
statement of financial condition/statement of financial position
balance sheet
statement of owner's equity/statement of net worth
a formal financial statement which summarizes all of the changes in owner's equity during a specified period of time (C-W+R-E)
straight line depreciation
a method in which the depreciable cost basis )original cost basis less salvage value) of asset is apportioned equally over its estimated useful life expressed in terms of months or years
T account
a skeleton form of an account used for instructional purposes
tangible assets
those assets that can be appraised by value or seen or touched
time/term of note
the period of time from the date of the note to the maturity date
transaction analysis
the effect of transactions on the accounting elements
useful life
the estimated life of a fixed asset
W-2 form
wage and tax statement; a report furnished by the employer for each employee indicating gross earnings and deductions for income and FICA taxes
W-4 form
Employees' Withholding Allowance Certificate
worksheet
an expanded trail balance utilizing for computing, classifying, and sorting account balances before preparing the formal financial statements
another name for Profit and Loss Statement is
income statement
Babylonians
culture associated with the practice of immersing the body of the dead in earthen jars filled with honey or wax
Barber-surgeon
approximately 1540-1745 were the sole agency permitted to embalm and perform anatomical dissections in the city of London
Chadwick's report
1840's reported on unsanitary conditions in London created by intramural burials, the high cost of funerals and the 1st use of the death certificate
Edwin Chadwick
English investigator of mass corruption in regard to English burial practices who recommended that cemeteries be municipalized and that religious rites be simplified and standardized in 1842
Joseph Henry Clarke
foudned Clarke School of Embalmin at Cincinnati (now Cincinnati College) in 1882. Author and holder of severl patents.
Jean N. Gannal
French chemist who developed early embalming methods inclouding injection through the carotid arteries. Author of "History of Embalming"
J. Anthoony Gaussardia
patented a process of embalming involving the ingection of an arsenic-alcohol mixture
Richard Harlan
translated Gannal's History of Embalming; responsible for bringing the European embalming techniques to the United States
Dr. William Harvey
Discovered the circulation of blood
Dr. Thomas Holmes
"Father of Modern Embalming" in the United States
John Hunter
Scottish anatomist credited with the discovery of "Hunter's Canal"
August Hoffman
credited with the discovery of the chemical formaldehyde
Anton von Leeuwenhoek
inventor of the microscipe - "Father of Microbiology"
Libitinia
the ancient Roman goddess of corpses and funerals
Marcello Malpighi
"Father of Histology", the study of tissues
Natron
a salt obtained from the dry lakes of the desert used by the Egyptians in the mummification process. It was once thought that the body was covered in natron for 70 days. Modern translations of the Book of the Dead state that the body was covered for only 20 days
Necropolis
in Egyptian history, the walled suburb of a major city whee embalming was performed. also known as "the city of the dead"
Dr. Auguste Renouard
author of "The Undertaker's Manual", the first book published specifically as an embalming textbook in the US
Frederick Ruysch
considered the "father of embalming" the first to refine the technique of arterial injection of a preservative into the vascular system