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Effects of exercise on the Muscular System
Terms in this set (38)
What are the four short term effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system?
Heart Rate increases
Cardiac output increases
Stroke volume increases
Vascular shunt mechanism
What is vascular shunt?
The redirection of blood form organs that aren't being used to areas that need oxygen most such as working muscles. E.g. in cycling large amounts of blood with be redistributed to the quadriceps or hamstrings.
What is cardiac output?
The amount of blood pumped out per minute.
What is stroke volume?
The amount of blood pumped out per beat.
What are three short term effects of exercise on the respiratory system?
Breathing rate increases
Tidal Volume increases
Minute volume increases
What is tidal volume?
The volume of air that is inspired or expired per breath.
What is residual volume?
The amount of air that is left in the lungs after maximal expiration.
What is vital capacity?
The maximum amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after maximal inspiration.
What is total lung capacity?
This is the vital capacity plus the residual volume and is the volume at the end of maximal inspiration.
What are the short term effects of exercise on the muscular system?
Increased potential for muscle fatigue
Increase in muscle temperature
Increase in flexibility of the muscles.
What are the long term effects of exercise on the respiratory system?
Increase in vital capacity
Higher oxygen uptake so more energy
What happens to haemoglobin as part of the long term effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system?
What happens to blood pressure as part of the long term effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system?
Decrease in resting blood pressure which will help off set disease and keep us healthy.
What happens to blood capillaries as part of the long term effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system?
They become more efficient which enables a higher oxygen uptake and hence more energy.
What happens to slow teach fibres as part of the long term effects of exercise on the muscular system?
Aerobic adaptations in muscles mean that slow twitch fibres are enlarged and give a greater potential for energy production.
What happens to mitochondria as part of the long term effects of exercise on the muscular system?
Size and number of mitochondria increase meaning that we have a greater potential for energy.
What happens to myoglobin content as part of the long term effects of exercise on the muscular system?
Increase in myoglobin content within the muscle cell, enabling more oxygen to be used by our working muscles.
What happens to the onset of fatigue as part of the long term effects of exercise on the muscular system?
The onset of fatigue is delayed because of higher maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) this will enable us to work harder for longer.
What happens to fast twitch muscles as part of the long term effects of exercise on the muscular system?
Aerobic adaptations in muscles from activities can cause hypertrophy of fast twitch muscles fibres. This will make the muscles stronger and more efficient.
What happens to the heart as part of the long term effects of exercise on the muscular system?
The heart will increase in size as a result of cardiac hypertrophy which will take our heart healthier and off set heart disease.
How do you minimise the impacts of hazards?
Personal protective equipment
Health and Safety procedures
Lifting, carrying and placing equipment safely
Appropriate level of competition
Warm up and cool down
The importance of personal hygiene to avoid minor infections.
How do you treat 'soft injuries'?
I ce - blood vessels contract to reduce swelling
What are the two types of injuries you can get from sport?
Chronic and Acute injuries
What are chronic injuries caused by?
Caused by continuous stress on a certain body part over a long period of time by overuse e.g. tennis elbow
What is an acute injury caused by?
Caused by sudden stress on a body part, such as a fracture, pulled muscle or concussion
Can occur by colliding with an opponent, being hit by something or falling from a height or with speed.
What is a hard tissue injury?
What are the two types of soft tissue injury?
What is an open injury?
Open injuries occur when the skin is broken, usually allowing blood to escape
What is a closed injury?
Injuries that happen under the skin e.g. bruising
What is a fracture?
A hard tissue injury. These can be open or closed. In an open fracture, the bone breaks the skin; in a closed fracture, it happens under the skin. They are also painful because of the damaged nerves inside the bone.
What is a stress fracture?
A stress fracture is a crack along the length of the bone, which is caused by continuous stress over a long period of time.
temperature increases. Lie patient in cool place and give liquids.
temperature falls too low. wrap in warm, dry clothing,
Involuntary contraction of muscles, caused by lack of salt in the blood, or lack of blood flowing to the muscle. Stretch the muscle
Difficulty in breathing, pain in the abdomen. Lean forward.
Pale, clammy skin, fast, weak pulse, feel dizzy. Call ambulance.
Unconsciousness, memory loss, sick. Call ambulance.
Sharp pain in abdomen. Take deep breaths.
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