63 terms

polygon

a closed, two dimensional figure formed by three or more straight sides

area

the number of square units needed to cover the surface of a two dimensional figure

perimeter

the measure of the distance around a polygon

length

the measurement of the extent of an object or shape along its greatest dimension

width

the measurement of the extent of an object or shape along its shortest dimension

base

the top and bottom faces of a three dimensional object

height

the shortest distance from the base of a parallelogram to its opposite side; in a triangle, the distance from the base to the opposite vertex

approximation

an inexact result adequate for a given purpose

ratio

a comparison of two numbers by division

circumference

the distance around the outside of a circle

pi

the ratio of the circumference of a circle to the diameter of a circle; equal to the fraction 22/7; often written as the approximation 3.14

radius

the distance from the center of the circle to any point on the circle

diameter

the distance across a circle through the center

angle

two rays with a common endpoint

acute angle

an angle with a measurement greater than 0 degrees and less than 90 degrees

right angle

an angle with a measurement of exactly 90 degrees

obtuse angle

an angle with the measurement greater than 90 degrees and less than 180 degrees

ray

a path that extends infinitely in one direction from one endpoint

triangle

a polygon with three sides and three angles

protractor

a tool for measuring and constructing angles

straightedge

a tool used for drawing straight lines

diagonal

a line or plane joining two nonadjacent vertices of a polygon

pentagon

any polygon with five sides

parallel

two or more lines, found in the same plane, that remain the same distance apart

side

a ray that is part of an angle or a line segment that is part of a polygon

plane figure

a two dimensional figure

isosceles triangle

a triangle with two congruent sides

quadrilateral

a polygon with four sides

rhombus

a parallelogram with all sides congruent

rectangle

a quadrilateral with opposite sides parallel, opposite sides congruent, and four right angles

hexagon

a polygon with six sides

octagon

a polygon with eight sides

congruent

same size and same shape

square

a parallelogram having four congruent sides and four right angles

scalene triangle

a triangle in which all three sides are different

equilateral triangle

a triangle in which all three sides are congruent

trapezoid

a quadrilateral with one pair of parallel sides

parallelogram

a quadrilateral with opposite sides congruent and opposite sides parallel

corresponding

the parts of congruent figures that match

noncongruent

not having the same size and same shape

perpendicular

two line segments that meet at right angles

solid figure

a three dimensional figure

cone

a solid figure with a circular base, a curved face, and one vertex

pyramid

a solid figure that has a polygon for a base and triangles for faces

face

the flat side of a solid figure

rectangular prism

a solid figure that has two parallel and congruent bases in the shape of polygons and at least three lateral faces shaped like rectangles

cylinder

a solid figure with all curved surfaces, two circular bases, and no vertices

three dimensional figure

a figure that encloses a part of space

edge

the intersection of faces on a solid figure

vertex

the point where the edges of a three dimensional figure intersect

cube

a square prism is also known as a cube

mean

the sum of the numbers in a set of data divided by the number of pieces of data

mode

the number(s) or item(s) that appear most often in a set of data

data

information, often numerical, which is gathered for statistical purposes

median

the middle number in a set of data when the data are arranged in numerical order

range

the difference between the greatest number and the least number in a set of data

measures of central tendency

numbers that are used to describe the center of a set of data; included are mean, median, and mode

variable

a symbol, usually a letter, used to represent an unknown value in expressions or equations

term

the part or parts of an expression or equation separated by operation symbols or the equal to symbol

expression

a mathmatical statement that does not contain an equal to symbol

coefficient

the number before a variable; for example, in the term 3x, then number 3 is the coefficient

equation

a mathematical sentence that states the two sides, separated by an equal sign, are equal

algebra

a mathematical language that uses symbols, usually letters that stand for unknowns, along with numbers