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35 terms

UA Modern Biology Quiz 17

Union Academy Biology Chapter 17
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Taxonomy
The science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms
Taxon
Any particular group within a taxonomic system
Carolus Linnaeus
Swedish botanist who proposed the modern system of biological nomenclature (1707-1778)
Domain
Most inclusive taxonomic category; larger than a kingdom
Phylum
Taxonomic classification of closely related classes
Kingdom
Large taxonomic group, consisting of closely related phyla
Class
Taxonomic group containing closely related orders
Order
Taxonomic group containing closely related families
Family
Taxonomic group containing closely related genera
Genus
Taxonomic group containing closely related species
Species
Taxonomic group whose members can breed and produce fertile offspring
Latin
Language used to assign scientific names to all living organisms
binomial nomenclature
Two-word system for naming organisms
Aristotle
Greek philosopher, developed first biological classification system
plants and animals
Aristotle's classification sytem consisted of these two groups
phylogenetics
The analysis of the evolutionary or ancestral relationships among taxa
phylogenetic diagram
A branching diagram that models evolutionary relationships between different organisms
dichotomous key
A key for the identification of organisms based on morphological traits
cladogram
Diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among organisms based on shared, derived characters
Archaea
Domain of prokaryotic organisms that are genetically distinct from bacteria
Bacteria
Domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls containing peptidoglycans
Eukarya
In a modern taxonomic system, a domain made up of all eukaryotes; this domain aligns with the traditional kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia
Eubacteria
A kingdom that contains all prokaryotes except archaebacteria
autotroph
An organism that makes its own food
heterotroph
Organism that obtains food by consuming other living things; also called a consumer
prokaryote
A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
eukaryote
A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Animalia
Kingdom of multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophs whose cells do not have cell walls
Plantae
Kingdom of multicellular photosynthetic autotrophs that have cell walls containing cellulose
Fungi
Kingdom composed of eukaryotic heterotrophs; many obtain energy and nutrients from dead organic matter
Protista
Kingdom of mostly single-celled eukaryotic organisms that are different from plants, animals, bacteria, and fungi
cell type
The main difference between all members of domain Eukarya and all members of domain Archaea and Bacteria
division
Instead of phylum, preferred term to describe classification level below kindgom in plants
biodiversity
Variety of living organisms on Earth
homologous
Structures having the same evolutionary origin but serving different functions