664 terms

Byzantine Empire


Terms in this set (...)

What sea is to the East of Constantinople?
Caspian Sea
Which European country did Islam expand into?
The Balkans is the area of which Ancient Culture that we studied?
What is the name of the church that was hardquartered in the Byzantine Empire?
Eastern Orthodox Church
Which Roman emperor split the Roman Empire into halves?
Emperor Diocletian
The Eastern Empire's capital was called Nova Rome. It later was called..................?
New Rome ( Constantinople)
The church had problems with the creation and worship of idols- called....?
The Eastern Empire became known as the Byzantine Empire, then the ----Empire?
The Western Empire lasted until 476 AD, but eventually lost land to _________ tribes.
Who was the emperor that expanded the Eastern Empire, but it shrank back years later.
What was this emperor's (Justinian) biggest accomplishment ?
His codification of Roman Law
What was the name of the codification of these laws, the one that Justinian codified?
The Body of Civil Law
Name a modern day country that used these law as the foundation of their laws.
Name the three aspects of the Justinian Code
Live Honestly
Injure No One
Give Every One their Due
How much did you have to pay back if you were caught stealing?
How old were the girls when they were allowed to get married?
Who built Constantinople after riots destroyed most of it?
Emperor Justinian
The Eastern Orthodox church had a problem following which person?
The Eastern Orthodox Church split from which church?
Catholic Church
Who was the equivalent to the Pope in the Eastern Orthodox Church?
In what year did these two leaders ( Pope & Patriach) excommunicate with each other?
Who started spreading throughout the Byzantine Empire that caused the Emperor to ask Europe for help?
Seljuk Turk
The _________ were all about fighting the muslims to regain the Holy Land ( Israel).
Which country sent the most "crusaders" to fight in the Crusades?
The Most well-known of the crusades was which number?
This crusade contained which King of England?
King Richard
Which crusade followed a path that lead only to Constantinople ?
Which two crusades had three separate starting points?
First, Third
Who's name was Constantinople named after
Another name for Byzantine empire
Eastern Roman Empire
Why was Constantinpole the center of trade
By water and trade routes
Reasons why Constantinople and Byzantine were powerful
Center of Christianity, Trade, Higher rate of literacy,` Taxes, and Military
What were most people
Most were poor
1st center of christianity
2nd center of cristianity
Who ran Byzantine's church in Constantinople
Who ran Western church in Rome
What did the Byzantine's church Tolerate
Discussion and Debate
What did the Western Church not tolrate
Discussion and Debate
What is a schism
Split or Seperation
List reasons why Invaders would want Constantinople and Byzantine
TRADE, Powerful, and Thriving
able to read and write
a work of art or literature from ancient Greek or Rome
New name for Constantinople after it was captured by Muslims in 1453
the bishop of Constantinople
a glorious Christian chruch
Hagia Sophia
organization of laws
Justinian Code
Split Roman Empire
What was the System of Law called?
Justinian's Code
What was the language of the Byzantine Empire?
What is made up of broken pieces of glass, tile, or stone?
Who defeated the Byzantines in 1453?
70,000 Turks
What was Constantinople renamed after?
What led to the disagreement which led to split between the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Churches?
What are images of holy people/saints in the church?
What was the former name of Constantinople?
What was the two-part division of the Roman Empire?
Eastern Roman Empire and Western Roman Empire
What was the official religion of Byzantine Empire?
What was Byzantine's secret weapon?
Greek Fire
What emperor was known for organizing system of law?
Who was known for working for women's rights?
What emperor associated with the second Golden Age and regained lost land for the empire?
Basil II
List 3 places in the world today that use the Cyrillic alphabet
Bulgaria, Russia, Ukraine
Who finally conquered the Byzantine Empire?
Islamic Ottomans
vast, grassy plains
In which year did the Byzantine Empire get defeated?
When the Byzantine was defeated, what religion took the place of Christianity in the area?
a narrow strip of land that is surrounded by water
capital city of Byzantine Empire
Why was Constantinople chosen as the site for the capital city?
location at crosswords or trade, easy to defend, between Eurasia
Constantinople is now called...
Istabnbul, Turkey
Who was the Russian leader that kicked the Mongols out of Russia?
Ivan III
Where did the Vikings originate?
the war-like nomads from that ruled Russia for many years?
Russia's first ruler
landowning nobles of Old Russia
Name Justinian's greatest achievement that influenced late civilization
his collection & orginization of laws (Justinian Code)
What term refers to the 2 continents that contained the Byzantine Empire?
List 3 gropus of people that contributed to the Byzantine Empire's culture
greece, Rome, Persia
What did Justinian call the capital during his reign?
The Second/New ROme
Which alphabet was used in the Byzantine Empire?
people against the use of icons
to write down
T/F: In the Byzantine Church, all members believed that Jesus was the son of God.
a split or break
officials who perform religous services (priests, ministers)
List 3 groups of barbarians that threatened civilization during this time.
Vikings, Mongols, Goths
religous images
important bishop in the eastern branch of Christianity
major product that was sold throughout the Byzantine Empire
modified the Greek alphabet and educated the people of Russia
St. Cyrill
most beautiful church of the Byzantine Empire
Hagia Sophia
Where was Theodora's greatest accomplishments?
women's rights
How do we know today that the Byzantine Empire was influenced by Middle Easterm traditions?
rich fancy designs & artwork
Russian rulers of this time pd
was called "The Second Rome"
important bishop from the Black Forest that are ancestors of those living in Easterm Europe
When was the Byzantine Empire at the height of its civilization?
when Justinian & Theodora ruled
city that was called "The Third Rome
Moscow (Russia
Today, which Russian Church has the largest membership?
The Byzantine Church held most of its services in which language?
The Roman Catholic Church held most of its services in which language?
Was there a democracy in the Byzantine or Russians civilization?
neither, both were dictatorships
Who was the Russian ruler that made Orthodox Christianity the official religion of his people?
Where are Scandinavian countries located?
Northern Europe
list 2 types of jobs that the poor people in the Byzantine Empire performed
bakeries & gardens
list a cultural achievement of the Byzantine Empirer
spread of Christianity, mosaics, silk tapestries
Give an example of a nation where you would find lots of people of Slavic origin.
Was the Byzantine Empire in the Western or Eastern hlaf of the original Roman Empire?
list 3 types of material that were used in the Byzantine churches
gold, silver, marble
How did the byzantine empire survive for so long
their stron military
Why did the east fall and the west didnt
because the east was wealthier
What are the justainian codes
collection of roman laws
What are the ottaman turks
they conquered the constanoples marking the end of the byzantine empire
What was the policy of iconoclasm
to oppose satues, pictures and symbols
What is the "great schism"
a split between greek orthodox (east catholic) and roman catholics (west catholic)
How did christianity spread from byzantine empier to asia and africa
the jesus sutras
christian missionary who created alphabet based on the greek alphabet
Byzantine art consisted of;
the halo symbol
Kievan rus
features of the byzantine empire were adopted by the civilization of him, political ideals of imperial control of the church?
The council of boyars
nobles who made up a war council
Who is prince vladmir 1
he married an emporers sister and freely converted kingdom to christianity
Mongols envaded kiev and created what
khanate of the golden horde
what was the official faith?
what is the level of tolerence of practicing other religions?
force them to convert
what can peasent farmers not do?
leave their land
what type if labor does society depend on?
chattel slaves and free peasent labor
what is strictly forbidden?
worshipping idols
what faith has the same practice?
Would the depiction of a cross be ok?
What is the government political structure?
monarchy, people in the military hold positions
why do military hold gov positions?
for rebellions and attacks
What shows christianity is going to be split?
dont agree on who deserves to be a saint
Who was Dioclatian?
Absolute monarch- 284
What did Dioclatian do?
Divides the empire:
-West- Maximian
-East- Dioclatian
Fix Growing Economic Problems:
-sons follow dads occupation
-fixed prices of goods/services
2 sides of empire
West- Latin speaking (language of church), weakened by attacks
East- Greek speaking, stronger and wealthier
What happens when Dioclatian steps down?
There is no system to choose the next ruler, so war breaks out
When did Constantine come to power?
When Dioclatian steps down, gains Western empire first, then East
Where was the capital moved to?
Where was the capital moved from?
What was Constantinople originally named?
New Rome
What were the geographical advantages of Constantinople?
-water protection
-trade access
-silk road
How did Constantine cause the city to grow?
He convinced rich Romans to move there by promising palaces
What types of people lived in Constantinople?
Greeks, Persians, Italians, Turks, etc.
What was the language spoken in Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire?
Who was Justinian?
Emperor of Byzantine Empire 527-565
What did Justinian want to do?
Restore Roman Empire
What lands did Justinian re-conquer?
Northern Africa
Who did Justinian marry?
Why was Justinians choice of marriage contraversal?
Theodora was an "actress"
What did Theodora do?
-Served as co-emperor
-Fought for womens rights
Who were the blues? Greens?
Blues- upper class
Greens- lower class
What was the arena where events were held called?
How did the Nika Revolt start?
Blues and Greens join together (532) to rebel against Justinian
What did the rebels do during the Nika Revolt?
Burned down the city, threatened to overrule Justinian
What was Justinians reaction to the revolt?
Why did Justinian end up staying and fighting the rebels?
Theodora convinced him to
What was Justinians code?
Legal code created by Justinian that combined existing laws with laws created by Justinian
What did Justinians code do?
-Reformed Roman law
-Organized laws and created a clear system
What was the Hagia Sophia?
-Church created by Justinian
-rebuilt after Nika Revolt
What does Hagia Sophia mean?
Holy Wisdom
What was innovative about the Hagia Sophia?
The dome seemed to float
What is a mosaic?
Form of art that is created by colored tiles put together to make a picture
What was a popular form of art in the
Byzantine Empire?
What was the official Religion?
Christianity in the Byzantine Empire
-Church worked closely with govt
-Emperor was thought to be rep of Christ on Earth
Who was Emperor Leo III?
Emperor of Eastern Empire (717-741)
Who was Leo IX?
Pope of Western Empire (1002-1054)
What is a Patriarch?
Head of the Church
What split society in the 700s?
-Use of art in religion
-Use of icons
What is an icon?
Painting or culture of Christ or another holy figure
Who were iconoclasts?
People who oppose the use of icons
Why did people oppose icons?
-Because if you worship figures other than Christ, Christianity could turn into a Polytheistic religion
-Could replace the Eucharist as form of worship
Why did people defend the use of icons?
-Thought it was a legitimate form of worship
-Simple Folk needed them
What did Emperor Leo III do in 726?
Forbade use of icons and orders their destruction
Roman Catholicism
-Centered in Rome
-Priests couldn't marry
-Latin in services
-Supported icons
-Pope has supreme authority
Eastern Orthodoxy
-Centered in Constantinople
-Priests could marry
-Greek in services
-Forbade icons
-Did not accept Pope as supreme authority
-Headed by Patriarch
-Emperor oversaw but did not govern church
Who did the pope name emperor of the Holy Roman Empire?
Why did the Pope name Charlemagne the head of the Holy Roman Empire?
To show he is in charge of politics
How do Patriarchs feel about Popes?
They refuse to recognize them
What did the Pope do to Leo III? What did Leo III do to the Pope?
Have each other kicked out of them church (excommunicated)
What eventually caused the Great Schism of 1054?
Pope vs. Patriarch
Who were the Ottoman Turks?
Turks who overthrew Byzantine Empire in 1453
What did the city of Constantinople become when the Turks took over?
What facilitated trade and communication as new people drawn to economies and trade networks?
Expansion of Empires
What was the name of the disease that killed many in the Byzantine Empire?
Black death
The Empire combined what sources of power?
The Empire combined what with innovations better suited to the current circumstances?
Inter-regional contact between states and Empires encouraged what and what kind of transfers?
Technological and cultural
What did Justinian codify in the Code of Justinian?
Roman law
Who was the most powerful Empress of the Byzantine Empire?
Who built the Hippodrome?
Who built the Hagia Sophia?
What problem did Justinian leave behind that killed over 25 million people?
Justinians plague
What problem did Justinian leave behind that bankrupted the Empire?
Lack of money
What was the Empire's biggest challenge?
Arab Empire
What year were the Venetians expelled?
Who returned to Byzantine for the fourth Crusade?
When did the Nika Riots take place?
Who fought in the Nika Riots?
Chariot race fans
What were the 'teams' during the Nika Riots?
Blue and green
Was Justinian on the blue or green team during the Nika Riots?
How did two fans start the Nika Riots?
They were accused of murder
What written language/alphabet did St. Cyril create?
Who were St. Cyril and Methodius?
What religion of Christianity did St. Cyril and Methodius convert people to?
major contributions of byzantine empire
justinian's code
preserved "greek classics"
"greek orthodox christianity"
extend legacy of Rome 1,000 years
significance of adopting greek as language
trade and commerce with greeks in mediterranean
reading and learning from works of greek
what did the byzantines learn to make that helped them trade
positive contributions of emperor justinian
justinian's code
construction of Hagia Sophia
rebuilding city of constantinople
negative impact Justinian's expansion program
was created tax pressures on empire
weakens empire at home
largest military threat to Byzantines
Byzantine bureaucracy vs han china bureacracy
each had an elaborate civil service system and bureacracy
church and state in western rome
church had power over state
church and state in byzantine empire
"state" held power over the church
primary causes of great schisms
different languages
different roles between church and state
different emphasis for religious holidays
final collapse of Constantinople occurs in the hands of
the ottomans
cultural makeup of the slavic people who settled in the plains of russia
similar speaking without political unity
who developed a healthy trade with the byzantines
the slavs
established governments in key trading cities
first prince of kievan rus
rurik of denmark
trade led to cutural diffusion between kiev and byzantine empire in religion
adopt "greek orthodox christianity" as their own
"russian orthodox church"
trade led to cutural diffusion between kiev and byzantine empire in legal system
1019 Yaroslav "the wise" develops a legal code
uses Justinian's code as a template
how did fall of constantinople effect kiev
lose lifeblood of city = trade and wealth (1453) from constantinople
russia begins cultural and intellectual decline
mongols invade
ban kahn destroys kiev - "golden horde"
keeps religion and culture but must pay taxes to mongols
Ivan III refuses to pay taxes any more - reestablishes russian sovereignty
german warrior who overthrew last roman emperor
roman emperor who divided roman empires
roman emperor responsible for construction of constantinople
emphasized legal rights, marriage, property, inheritance, women's rights, criminal justice
theodora (justinian's wife)
harsh, cruel, powerful women
last emperor to rule over eastern and western roman empire
pope urban II
issued call for the crusades
mehmed II
sultan of ottoman turks
responsible for taking over constantinople
preservation of classical learning
euclid = geometry
herodotus = history
galen = medicine
basil II
bulgaroktonos - bulgarian slayer
great schism
split between western and eastern roman empire
western empire
roman catholic
eastern empire
greek orthodox
roman catholic
greek orthodox
papal bull
decree or order passed down from the pope
800 CE Christmas Day
pope leo III appoints Charlemagne head of holy roman empire
forbidding the worship of "icons" (statues, paintings)
forbidden from the sacraments of the church
hagia sophia
church of holy wisdom
byzantine version of roman coliseum
elevated part of city
byzantine art represents
church and state as one
mihrab (alteration)
direction of mecca
rondels (alteration)
prince vladimir I
converts empire to Christianity
1st rome
2nd rome
3rd rome
russian aristocrats
varangina guard
employed by basil II
elite bodyguard of byzantine empire
out slovrced - scandanavian
what byzantines used to hold off invaders
iron chain - protects harbor
military innovation to repels muslims
greek fire
how did byzantine empire ensure they would have a long lasting loyal military
rewarded them w grants of land
would let sons inherit land if they went into military
creates hereditary military leaders... regionalism
merchants don't gain significant political power
similar to china
study entrance mosaic at hagia sophia
Ancient Historian who wrote Glorifying Novels & Scathing Accounts of the Emperor Justinian
Theodora persuaded Justinian to ignore his advisors who advocated
fleeing constantinople
The form of Christianity that developed in the Byzantine Empire became known as
eastern orthodox
The Byzantine capital was strategically located
where eaurope meets Asia
After A.D. 550, the major Byzantine industry was the production of
The Byzantines requested the pope's aid after being attacked by
In 1054, a schism, or complete break, separated
eastern and western churches
The Byzantines created elaborate decorated books called
illuminated manuscripts
After the fall of Constantinople, Muscovy became the center of the
orthodox church
The language used by the later Byzantine emperors was
In A.D. 1453, Constantinople fell to the
The Corpus of Civil Law was compiled by a commission appointed by
Justinian became emperor of Byzantine in
The main city of the eastern part of the Roman empire was named
The eastern Roman emperor was the head of both the ____________ and _____________ in the empire
state and church
The architectural masterpiece called the Hagia Sophia was a
Small art objects that represent religious persons are called
When the pope or patriarch declares a person to be outside the church, cut off from all Christians, that person is said to be
The major disagreement between the pope in Rome and the patriarch in Constantinople concerned
who was supreme head of church
Justinian undertook all of the following tasks Except
regaining land from the barbarians.
healing the split between the pope and the patriarch.
codifying the laws of his empire.
beautifying his capital city.
Constantinople possessed all the following advantages except
a good harbor. centuries of freedom from warfare.
strong fortifications. a thriving economy.
The fall of Constantinople was a turning point in all of the following respects except
it marked the end of the Byzantine Empire.
Hagia Sphia remained in the hands of Byzantine Christians.
it symbolized the emergence of the Ottoman empire as a great power.
it sent shock waves across the Christian world.

Hagia Sphia remained in the hands of Byzantine Christians.
The Byzantine empire preserved the cultural heritage of
Greece and Rome
Where was Constantinople built?
between europe and Asia
What reason did many people give for opposing the use of icons in Christian worship
the ten commandments
The split between the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches was caused by all of the following except
The Pope's claim to be the supreme leader of the Church.
attacks on the Byzantine Empire by outsiders.
the Pope's naming of Pepin the Short as emperor.
Rome's support for the use of icons.

Rome's support for the use of icons
The dispute over the use of icons in churches demonstrated that
the Byzantines accepted the religious doctrine of Rome.
icon worshippers were superstitious.
the popularity of the Christian religion was weakening.
religious issues could become heated debates.
Which was the first officially Christian country in the world
Both the Byzantine monasteries and scholars contributed to civilization by
preserving Greek and Roman learning
Why did Constantine call the leaders together
to settle the dispute as to whether God and Christ were one
What was the outcome of the Nicaea meeting
it was concluded that God and Christ were one
What do you think Arius was teaching?
God and Christ are not one
What was the difference between how the east and west was governed?
In the east, the emperor would lead the state and church. This would highly change the eastern empire. In the west the pope or bishop was only head of the church.
What did Justinian's code do for the empire
helped to maintain ceasaropapism, governed the empire well.
What groups would attack the east?
Arabs, Turks
. What affect did the plague have on urban areas
it helped lower class people thrive and climb up the ladder
Were icons reverent or idolatrous
it was a heated debate as to whether they were idolatrous or reverent.
Explain to what degree was the issue of "who was the true pope
what is ceasaropapism
The pope has spiritual and political power
what were the principal characteristics of byzantine economy and society
they had a high population
they had a harbor- (the Golden Horn)
women enjoyed mobility and freedom
Rural people remained farmers
what were the biological and military impacts of plague on Byzantine Empire
high fever, intense pain, population declined making it impossible to keep a strong army for the next two centuries, commerce/trade declined,
what doctrine and political struggles occurred within eastern Christianity
icons/ iconoclasm
debates as to whether Christ was purely divine (monophysites) or part human and part divine.
Is Christ God?
the power of the pope
why was the Macedonian dynasty so important in Byzantine history
Basil defeated Balgars which was a threat to Byzantine
what were the impacts of the Turkish conquests upon Byzantium
they took over Armenia, Armenia which were sources of food and soldiers, and used the cities as a mechanism to defeat Byzantium, capturing Romanus.
how did Geography affect Russian development?
it was landlocked and that affected trade.
It has very low temperatures
high population
what was the significance of Olga's creation of a connection between Kiev and Constantinople.
The eastern half of the Roman Empire eventually became known as the
Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire stretched East to
The Byzantine Empire stretched South to
This was the capital city of the Byzantine Empire
Constantinople was located between these two seas
Black and Aegean
Constantinople sat between these two continents
Asia and Europe
Constantinople became the wealthiest part of the empire because of these, which crossed through it.
Trade Routes
Constantinople was easy to defend, partly because it was built on this.
A peninsula
To protect the harbor in Constantinople, this was used.
A chain strung through the harbor.
Government buildings and palaces were built in this style in Constantinople.
Emperors of the Byzantine empire spoke this language.
As Roman influence faded in the Byzantine empire, this society gained popularity and influence.
This was the Byzantine empire's most famous Emperor.
This was the name of the riots that Justinian putdown
Nika Riots
This was Justinian's wife's name, whom he made co-empress.
What did Theodora do?
How many years did Justinian rule?
What is the best burial sheet
What did Justinian do that was great
Recaptured city of Rome/ rebuilt Hagia Sophia/collected a law code
What happend when Justinian died?
Foreigners invaded
Constantinople best defense?
Greek fire
Who finally shut down Constantinople?
What is Nicene Creed?
Jesus was born human and divine
Holy image
What's a iconoclast
Image breaker, they dstroyed icons
Most important Christinan?
Everyone is equal
Pope was head
What was the language of orthodox?
What was the language for Catholic?
What was the same?
What was in there libraries that monks copied?
Homers epixs
How did Roman law start?
Justinian got a group of lawyers to plan it
What is the code?
What seems good to the emperor has the force of law
What did it discriminate against
What did it help women with?
What happend with the city of Constantinople
Customers would take ideas home with them
What's a missionary?
Person who's tries to convert peolle to other religions
What did Cyril and Methodius do?
Created a Greek ALPHABET
Who conquered Constantinople?
Ottoman Empire
Type of religion of Byzantine Empire & Russia
Orthodox Christianity
Purpose of Hagia Sophia
Orthodox Church
Language used in Roman Catholic Church
Language used in Byzantine Church
What cultures were preserved by Byzantines?
Greek & Roman
Who uses the Cyrillic alphabet today?
Why was Constantinople chosen as geographically important?
Peninsula with naturally fortified harbors and connected to trade routes
Controversies between churches
Language used, role of leader, religious icons
Why was Justinian important?
Leader of Byzantine Empire, codified law code still used today
Main type of artwork used by Byzantines
Dominant religion of Byzantine Empire
Orthodox Christianity
Great Schism
Split between Christian churches
Leader of Byzantine Church
Leader of Roman Catholic Church
Biggest issue between two churches
Role of the Pope
Eastern Roman Empire
What is another name for the Byzantine Empire?
Eastern Roman Empire
What was the capital of the Byzantine Empire?
Why was Constantinople a success capital city with much wealth?
Constantinople was between what 2 seas, making it an easy place to trade?
Black Sea/ Aegean Sea
Constantinople was between what 2 continents, making it an easy place to trade?
Europe/ Asia
What was put across the harbor of Constantinople making easier to defend?
What was Constantinople's nick name?
"New Rome"
What was Constantinople's main amphitheater?
In its beginning was Constantinople similar to or very different from Rome the city?
As time passed Constantinople moved away from Roman ideas and became more ______.
Who was the most famous of the Byzantine Emperors?
Who was Justinian's wife?
What did Theodora help promote in the Empire?
Women's Rights
During an uprising Justinian was saved by Theodora because she told him to _______ and not run.
What was Justinian best known for that impacted most of Europe, even after his death?
Justinian Code
What made Justinian's Code better than previous law codes?
Easy to understand
How long did the Byzantine Empire last?
1,000 years
What made the Byzantine Empire wealthy?
Most Byzantine's were farmers, and what did they farm?
What was the name of the largest church Justinian had built out of the 1,000s in Constantinople?
Hagia Sophia
________ was a major factor in the decline of the Byzantine Empire.
Foreign Invaders
What did people refuse to do in the years leading up to the Great Schism?
Recognize the Byzantine emperor as his superior
What typically happened when Byzantine leaders showed off their wealth to visitors?
Visitors left Constantinople inspired by Byzantine culture
Where did Eastern Orthodox missionaries travel to spread the faith of the Byzantine Empire?
Eastern Europe
What were the results of the publication of Justinian's Code?
Non Christians were discriminated against, Roman law became less unified, and Women were officially given some property rights
Who built the Hagia Sophia?
How did Byzantine librarians preserve Greek and Roman culture?
They copied the manuscripts of Greece and Rome
The capital of Constaninople was located:
Along the Bosporus Strait
What were used as moats in Constantinople?
trenches filled with water
Which church followed the Western tradition of Christianity after the Great Schism?
Roman Catholic Church
______________ had the strongest influence on the Byzantine Empire
Eastern Orthodox Christianity
A heavily burning water-resistant chemical mixture used by the people of Constantinople
Greek Fire
The capital of Roman Empire was located on this peninsula of _____.
Describe Justinian's impact on the Byzantine Empire
The empire reached its largest size
Constantinople and the Byzantine empire fell to which group in 1453?
Ottoman Turk Empire
Refers to the complex society of the Byzantine Empire
Narrow body of water that cuts through land, connecting two larger bodies of water
Trench filled with water
a chemical mixture that burned furiously and was used by the people of Constantinople as their secret weapon
Greek fire
Statement of beliefs
head of the Church
The split between the Eastern and Western churches
Great Schism
systematic body of law that gave great power to the emperor
Justinian's Code
someone who tries to convert others to a particular religion
Allowed the Slavs to write down their language, created by Cyril and Methodius
Cyrillic Alphabet
_______ was the head of the church in the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH
the pope
_______ was the head of the church in the EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCH
the emperor
Which church is this true for?: all patriarchs had equal authority in their region
eastern orthodox church
Which church is this true for?: the pope was the highest church official
roman catholic church
In the EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCH, rituals and teaching were in the _______ language
In the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, rituals and teaching were in the _______ language
In the EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCH, priests (could or could not?) marry
In the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, priests (could or could not?) marry
could not
In Eastern Orthodox Christianity what power did the emperor have over the patriarch?
he could remove him
Constantinople was a center for trade because ______
it connected Europe and Asia
Traders could buy goods from _____ at Constantinople
The eastern half of the Roman Empire eventually became known as the
Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire stretched East to
The Byzantine Empire stretched South to
This was the capital city of the Byzantine Empire
Constantinople was located between these two seas
Black and Aegean
Constantinople sat between these two continents
Asia and Europe
Constantinople became the wealthiest part of the empire because of these, which crossed through it.
Trade Routes
Constantinople was easy to defend, partly because it was built on this.
A peninsula
To protect the harbor in Constantinople, this was used.
A chain strung through the harbor.
Government buildings and palaces were built in this style in Constantinople.
Emperors of the Byzantine empire spoke this language.
As Roman influence faded in the Byzantine empire, this society gained popularity and influence.
This was the Byzantine empire's most famous Emperor.
This was the name of the riots that Justinian putdown
Nika Riots
This was Justinian's wife's name, whom he made co-empress.
What is it called when emperor Justinian chose ten men to review 1,600 books to simplify it?
Justinian Code
Money or goods a wife brings to a marriage?
Emperor Justinian ruled from _________
Patriarch was the head of the church?
Eastern Church
Who is Theodora?
Justinian's wife
What happened in 1054?
There was a formal split between the catholic and Orthodox Churches.
Theodora convinced her husband to do what?
Make women's rights more fair.
What was the capital of the Byzantine Empire?
What language was spoken in the western part of the byzantine empire?
Why was Constantinople so important?
Because it was the center of trade routes.
The pope was head of which Church?
Western Church
What is a Hippodrome?
A great Chariot Racing track in Constantinople.
How did the eastern church feel about clergy?
They allowed marriage.
Justinian build a great church during his reign... what was it called?
Haigia Sophia
Had four large piers and crowned by a huge dome?
Haigia Sophia
What decorated the churches with small pieces of tile placed together to make an image?
When was Constantinople permanently defeated by the Turks?
1453 AD
People who opposed the use of icons in worship
At what battle were the Byzantine forces defeated by the Turks?
Battle of Manzikert
What is a Taiga?
Russian region north of the steppe having great forests, much rainfall and cold long winters
Who accepted the view that Holy Spirit combines both Father and Son?
Western Church
What is the Nika Revolt?
It is a riot threatened to overthrow Justinian. He was going to flee but Theodora convinced him to stay.
Who maintained supremacy of the Father in the trinity?
Eastern Church
Who is Belisarius?
General of the army that led troops at Nika Revolt.
What is known as "Greek Fire?"
When sprayed or thrown at or onto enemies ships the liquid bursts setting the ship on fire.
What two countries interrupted trade routes for Kievan Russia?
Turks and Italians
Who converted to Christianity to marry his love Anna?
Vladimir I
Great Forests and receives much rainfall?
After 20 years of ruling from the capital city of Rome, Emperor Constantine moved the capital of the Byzantine Empire to what city?
Emperor Constantine changed the name for the new capital. What was the name?
Who was the city named after?
Emperor Constantine.
What year did Emperor Constantine begin his rule?
306 A.D.
What religious group of people were no longer persecuted because of Emperor Constantine?
Describe what the city of Constantinople was like in the early 500 A.D.
Paved roads, public baths, and large marketed.
Why did Constantinople become rich and powerful?
Because their trade increased, population grew, and merchants came to trade.
Who began his rule of the Byzantine Empire in 527 A.D. ?
What is the Justinian code?
An organized set of laws.
Describe what the Byzantine culture was like under the rule of Emperor Justinian.
Justinian encouraged education, Justinian never gave up, and Justinian listened to everyone rich or very, very poor.
What is a schism?
A split.
Why was there a schism in the Christian church in 1054?
Because the pope and the emperor disagreed.
Name the two forms of Christianity that were formed because of the schism in the church. One was in the east and one the west.
East: Greek or Eastern Orthodox. West: Roman Catholic.
Name three things that caused the fall of Constantinople.
The wall fell, Justinian died, and the Muslims gained power.
Constantinople had been a defensive fortress for over how many years before how many years before it fell?
1,000 years.
Istanbul became a great center of 1 culture and the capital of the 2 Empire.
1= Muslim 2= Ottoman.
Who was Muhammad?
A prophet and founder of Islam.
What is the religion of the Muslim people?
Who were nomads? Describe them.
People with no home. They travel in or leading a caravan. They travel from place to place in search of food, water, and pasture.
How was Mecca important? Give two reasons.
Muhammad's birthplace and it was a center of trade.
Name two Arab contributions to mathematics and science.
Water Wheel, Algebra, and pharmacy's.
what was the official faith?
what is the level of tolerence of practicing other religions?
force them to convert
what can peasent farmers not do?
leave their land
what type if labor does society depend on?
chattel slaves and free peasent labor
what is strictly forbidden?
worshipping idols
what faith has the same practice?
Would the depiction of a cross be ok?
What is the government political structure?
monarchy, people in the military hold positions
why do military hold gov positions?
for rebellions and attacks
What shows christianity is going to be split?
dont agree on who deserves to be a saint
what did Diocletian do?
-divided empire east and west
-assigned an Augusts and Caesar to both sides
-lived in eastern side because it economically better
what was the geography of Constantinople?
-surrounded by water on 3 sides
-surrounded by extremely strong walls for protection
what was the Edict of Milan?
a document signed by Constantine that declared Christianity the official religion of the Eastern empire
What was the council of Nicaea?
a meeting called by constantine for all of the bishops to unify the christian religion
what is the difference in Orthodoxy and Heretical?
Orthodoxy was accepted (okay) and Heretical was not (not okay)
what happened when Constantine died?
-Diocletian's successor
-he decided to become baptized
-thought his son was planning to kill him-he had him executed and everyone having anything to do with him
-caused Constantine to have no heir
-moved capital to Byzantium-Constantinople
who was Julian?
"the apostate"
-attempted to remove christianity
who was Theodosius?
-last emperor of the Eastern empire
-declared christianity the official religion
-shut down all aspects of polytheism
-persecuted Roman religion
when was the fall of the Eastern Roman Empire?
476 A.D.
what was the geography if Constantinople?
-surrounded by water on 3 sides
-located on a straight connecting the Black sea and Mediterranean
-key trading location with Africa, Europe, and Asia
what did Constantinople have that made it so hard to conquer?
-theodosian walls- extremely strong walls
what was a key characteristic of Byzantine rulers?
they saw themselves as rulers of the Roman empire
what was Byzantine culture based on?
-religion-christianity became the center of Byzantine art, education, and life
who was Justinian?
-first ruler of the Byzantine empire
-not liked among the people
-high taxes
-reconquered much of the Roman empire, which was lost after his death
-created universal code of law by combining concepts from around the world
What was part of Justinian's legacy?
-Hagia Sophia- remains lead eastern christianity until fall of Constantinople
-Justinians code
who was Theodora?
-former actress and prostitute
-father was a bear trainer
strong advocate for women rights
-wife of Justinian
what were the Nika riots?
-riots that took place at Hippodrome (chariot racing stadium)
-Blue vs. green fans
-riots caused by rumor that Justinian was going to raise taxes
-Justinian arrested one blue and one green fan and sentenced them to execution
-the fans escaped, causing a city wide protest
-protesters tore the city apart
-Theodora convinced Justinian to stay and not flee
-Justinian had army clear the streets and had anyone who refused to leave killed
what happened during the golden age of the Byzantine empire?
-Justinian started constructing projects after riots ended
-he restored public works and built Hagia Sophia
-he started a military campaign, signing a peace treaty with the Persians
-he began trying to conquer back all of the former Roman land
what happened when Justinian began reconquering the Roman lands?
-the Persians broke peace treaty they had signed
-Byzantine did not have enough money to fight two wars
-created a financial crisis in the empire
what was Justinian's code?
a series of laws made from concepts around the Mediterranean that affected all of the Byzantine empire
-"improved version of the Roman law"
-**became basis for european law in the future**
who ruled the Greek orthodox church? what about the Roman Catholic church?
Greek- Patriarch
what is an icon?
a depiction of Jesus used for religious worship
what was the controversy over the icons?
some thought that they were overused, yet some thought that it was used as an ideal worship
what did Leo II do?
he banned Icons, which led to vandalization of them throughout the churches
who approved of the Icons and who did not?
West- opposed by pope
East- supported by emperor and patriarch
what was the emperors response to the West not approving of the Icons?
they claimed to have complete religious authority over the Christian church in the Byzantine empire
what questions caused more and more separation of the West and Eastern religion?
1. did the Pope have authority?
2. Did the church have the right to tax people?
3. could the priest have right to marriage?
4. what language should we speak?
what was the great schism?
the time when the west and east split into the Eastern Orthodox church and the Roman Catholic Church
what were the main differences in the Roman Catholic and the Greek Orthodox churches?
Roman Catholic
-church taught in Latin
-Pope had authority over Bishops, Kings, and Bishops
-The Priests couldn't marry

Greek Orthodox
-Church taught in Greek
-Patriarch and bishops ran church
-emperor has authority over patriarch
the Priests could marry
what were the main differences between the Roman empire and the Byzantine empire?
-capitol- Rome
-spoke Latin
-education was science based
-art was based on beauty and physical appearance
-Roman catholic religion

-capitol- Constantinople
-Spoke greek
-education was based on holiness and spirituality
-greek Orthodox religion
What caused the fall of the Byzantine empire?
-black plague
-empire was under attack by the Russians, the Persians, and the Islam
-The crusades
what were the Crusades?
-a series of holy wars fought with foreign invaders on the Byzantine empire
-ottoman turks successfully broke down Constantinople's walls and sacked the city-extremely brutal
what was the legacy of the Byzantine empire?
-preserved Greek and Roman culture
-great schism
-Justinian's code
-Cyrillic alphabet-allowed for spread of Eastern Orthodox christianity throughout the empire
Which church was the Byzantine Empire tied to?
Greek Orthodox Christian Church
A harsh ruler that created a law code, Justinian's code, reconquered the empire and set building programs, especially dealing with churches.
A single ruler with supreme power
One of the major contributions of the Byzantine artists, icons were holy images of the Virgin May, Jesus or saints of the Orthodox Christian Church. They were supposed to create a sense that the holy person was actually present.
Justinians Code
Emperor Justinian set up a team of scholars
they gathered and organized the ancient laws of Rome
The collection became the "body of civil law" Institutes, Novellae.
Law text book
New laws developed after 534
An art technique that used little pieces of glass or stone to create images.
the highest church official in Constantinople
Great Schism of 1054
When the Orthodox and the Catholic Church officially broke apart.
Imperial authority over the church
Byzantine emperor controlled the business of the Church
the emperor appointed the patriarch.
The emperor was the head of the state and is also the head of the church and supreme judge in religious matters.
Hagia Sofia
Means "Holy Wisdom" A great church built by Justinian with many domes. It blends Greek, Roman, Persian & other Middle Eastern styles.
Similarities between Orthodox and Catholic
Based on the gospel of Jesus and the Holy Bible. Used sacraments such as baptism. Religious leaders are priests and bishops. They seek to convert people.
Characteristics of the Roman Catholic Church
Services are conducted in Latin. Pope has authority over all other bishops. Pope claims authority over all kings and emperors. Priests may not marry. Divorce is not permitted.
Characteristics of the Greek Orthodox Church
Services are conducted in Greek and local languages. Patriarch and other bishops head the church as a group. Emperor claims authority over patriarch and other bishops. Priests may be married. Divorce is allowed under certain conditions.
Justinian Re-conquering the Empire
Recovered Rome from the Ostrogoths. Rome changed hands 6 times in 16 years.
Justinian's Building Program
Rebuilt crumbling fortifications. Church building was his passion; considered most visible sign of connection
between church and state.
Most powerful woman in Byzantine history, In early life she was an actress, Married Justinian in 525. During a rebellion of the masses, Justinian would have fled, but she told him to stay. Died of breast cancer in 548.
Theodora's deeds
met with envoys, wrote with foreign leaders, passed laws
built churches
After Theodora's Death
Justinian never remarried and passed no major laws for the rest of his reign (18 years)
Problems in the Empire
Plague, Attacks from foreigners
Probably arrived from trade ships from India
542, worst year of plague; 10,000 people dying every DAY
Attacks from foreigners
Germanic tribes in west, Avars, Slavs, and Bulgarians in north, Persians in east.
Attacks Change Political Structure
By 1350, reduced to tip of Anatolia and part of the Balkans
Byzantine Emperors
Brutal, often met violent ends. Of 88, 29 died violently, 13 left throne for monastary
Created a capital city in Byzantium, Nova Roman later known better known as Constantinople and modern day Istanbul. Founded as the capital of a Christian Empire
What did Emperor Valens do?
Built the largest aqueduct ever, To keep the city alive because there was overpopulation and water was far away. Spanned 400 miles, lots of aqueduct bridges. Also built an underground storage system for the water.
A tribe that was starting to target Constantinople because they felt it was becoming very rich and powerful. Were great on horseback. Never managed to breach Constantinople.
Theodosius's wall
Great wall outside of Constantinople . Engineers used limestone mortar so it could withstand an earth quake. It was damaged and rebuilt 20 years later. The improved wall had three lines of defense, s moat, then an outer terrace and a new wall. Finally there was the original wall, on the inside that was even stronger than before.
Why people didn't like Justinian
He was very strict and taxed a lot.
Much like the colosseum, it was an event center shaped like a U where races were held. It could hold many people as well as many shops.
Nico Riot
Rebels opposed the Emperor and held a protest. 1/3 of Constantinople was destroyed. So he told them to meet up with him in the Hippodrome so he could make a treaty. They came and it was a trap, doors were shut and the military massacred all the rebels.
After Justinian's Rule
It was bankrupt with military shrinking and political boundaries constantly being pushed.
Emperor that restored Byzantine to power. He focused greatly on the military. Conquered Bulgaria and mutilated its troops.
Fall of Constantinople
Islamic Ottoman Empire succeeds in 1453. Fell to more modern weapons like gunpowder and cannons.
Effects of the Byzantine Empire after it fell
Influenced the development of Russian and other nations of Eastern Europe. Its great art, engineering and architecture is said to have helped the Renaissance.
A period of time where beautiful icons were destroyed. The Greek Eastern orthodox Church thought it was idol worship.
Conflicts between the Orthodox and the Catholic Church
The Catholic church had the Pope which claimed authority over the orthodox who in turn refused to acknowledge that. The Catholic church worshiped representations of God, and Jesus but the Orthodox church thought that was icon worship, a sin.
How did the Byzantine Empire form?
The Roman Empire was falling apart; Diocletian divided empire to make it more manageable.
Who was the emperor of the new Byzantine Empire?
Who was the most important emperor?
What was the capital city of the Empire?
What were Justinian's achievements?
Hagia Sophia, Justinian's Law Code, expanding the empire
What are the main points of Justinian's code of laws?
similarities with American law, the code is softer on murder, allowed for women's rights
What was the Byzantine influence on Russia?
Came through trade routes, created CD
What is a schism?
Split in one religion- Roman Catholic Church
What are the 2 religions that were formed?
Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox
What heritages did the byzantine empire adopt?
Blended Roman, Christian, Greek, and middle eastern influences
What were forbidden in the 700's?
Worship icons
What is Constantinople called?
New Rome
Who was the emperor?
Justinian 527-565
Who did Justinian conquer?
North Africa, Italy, and the southern Iberian Peninsula (Spain)
What was the great achievement?
Rebuilding the church- Hagia Sophia- meaning "Holy Wisdom"
What was their law called?
Justinian's Code- 1100 reached Western Europe
Sole ruler with complete authority
Who was Justinians Co-ruler?
Theodora his wife, who died of cancer, he never married again after that
Are their military forces strong or weak?
They are the strongest in the world
Christian Crusaders 1204
Considered state officials which were responsible to the emperor
In what religion can priests marry?
Eastern Orthodox
Which religion was tolerant of non-Christian religions like muslims?
Eastern Orthodox
What alphabet did they translate to the Bible?
What year did they convert completely to Christianity?
Russia Prince Vladimir decides to abandon old Slavic Gods
Which religions was Vladimir deciding on and why didn't he chose the two ?
Islam, Judaism, or Christianity and he rejected Islam and Judaism because they forbade eating certain foods
Golden Horacle
Gold tent war
Had to pay heavy Tribute
Princes were increasing their power-grew rich by keeping part of the tribute collected for the Mongols
1380 Russians stand up to mongols and defeat them
Ivan III (1462-1505)
The great
Expelled German nobles
Referred to himself as Tsar/Czar
No more tribute to the mongols
The terrible
Gave land to the nobles for military service
Becomes unstable violent, killed his own son and had his followers eliminate non-followers
Links similarities to Joseph Stalin
Russian Nobility
Goods and influences traveled among Danube and Vistula rivers
No natural Boarders
Dispersing of Jews from their homeland
Christians often blamed for hard economic times and natural disasters
Which type of culture is the Byzantine Empire known for preserving?
Which empire conquered the city of Constantinople?
In what year did the Ottomans conquer Constantinople?
What geographic advantage did the city of Constantinople have?
It was located at a trade crossroads between Europe and Asia.
What form of Christianity developed in the Byzantine Empire?
Greek Orthodox
Byzantine scholars organized Roman law into a collection of laws known as...
Justinian's Code
The leader of the Roman Catholic Church
The Pope
Byzantine art usually depicted...
religious subjects
This is the term for the split between the Eastern & Western Churches.
The term for the alphabet developed by a Byzantine missionary is...
The leader of the Eastern Orthodox Church
The Byzantine Emperor
What spread Byzantine culture and religion into Russia and Eastern Europe?
trade routes
This is the most important legacy of Byzantium.
The preservation of Greco-Roman culture
The name of the ethnic group of Kievan Russia, Eastern Europe and the Balkans is...
This is a Christian holy image or picture.
When Emperor Constantine moved the Roman capital to Byzantium, what did he rename it to?
To Constantinople.
Where is Constantinople located?
Located at Europe's furthest point, linking Europe across the Bosporus to Asia.
Where is the crossroads of trade?
Between Asia and Europe.
What was blended into this Empire?
Roman, Greek, and Christian influences with other Mediterranean traditions.
What lasted for almost 1000 years?
The fall of the Roman Empire.
Describe Daily life in Constantinople and discuss what made it an ideal capital empire
Daily life: Rich and elegant, luxury markets, one million residents, sewer system, services for poor,amazing architecture and entertainment

ideal location: easy to defend, surrounded by water and walls, near maritime choke point, connect Europe to Asia
Eastern orthodox church
Christian church in Byzantine Empire, broke away from Roman catholic church
Byzantine Emperor, codified Roman law, rebuilt constantine
How did the Byzantine empire influence the history of government/law religion and art
Government:Justinian's law
Religion : Eastern orthodox church (emperor appointed patriarch, services in greek"
Art: Hagia sophia (domed church), christian paintings in church
Byzantine empire
Magna carta
english legal agreement between King and lords, 1215 limited monarch's power
Habeas corpus
legal protection for the accused; cant be jailed without a charge
describe the feudalism traditional structure and its impact on european history
hierarchy classes: king, church,lords,knights, and peasants

life revolved around manor (self-sufficient estate)

peasants work in exchange for protection

impact: little opportunity for peasants,no movement, less trade,fewer cities,reinforced status-quo
describe how political developments the plague and the hundred years' war contributes to the decline of feudalism
decline of feudalism: political developments: Jury Trails (took power away from feudal lords) Habeas corpus, magna carta ,parliament (power shifted to common people)

Plague:population dropped, lords and nobles had desprate need for workers: workers could demand more rights and better wages

hUndred Years War: monarchs raised armies rather than nobles
spread of the islamic empire
Abraham : plays a prominent role as an example of monotheistic faith in judaism, christianity, and islam.
spiritual; and political leader of the muslims; combined legal an religious leader theocracy
wanted first caliph to be Ali bakr (son in law) minority branch worldwide but 80% of Persian gulf
wanted Abu Bakr (father in law) as first caliph majority branch worldwide
City in Syria; capital of the islamic empire during umayyad (arab) Dynasty
City in Iraq; capital of islamic empire during Abbasid (persian)dynasty
islamic empire map
what factors led to success of Arab armies in conquering Arabian,much of the middle east and North Africa
Fervernt belief that god was on their side

Mastery of raiding and camel for desert transportation
-Did not force religion on conquered , allowed followers to play lower taxes
-could not raid fellow Muslim's propetry, encouraged distant raiding
describe the treatment of conquered people and women living in the muslim world
Christians and jews tolerated, but subject to special tax (5%)
-nonbelivers subjects to 10% tax, if you converted to Islam, your property was spared from raiding
-Women viewed as generally inferior, but allowed to own property
descirbe the Muslim attitude towards trade.what factors allowed the Muslims empire to promote trade?
Emphasized trade (Muhammad was a merchant,Hajj encouraged safe trade and travel to Mecca)
-Benefited from: Camel Carvans, indian ocean sea routes, common language,common set of laws, common currency, common religion, and Geography(connecter east to west)
-served sea routes between West and india/china for 1000 years
What were some of the great achievements of Islamic civilization
Architecture (mosques ,domes,minarets,Cordoba)
-libaries and universities (preserved Aristotle and plato, paved way for renaissance)
-math and astronomy (algebra and trigonometry)
-expert textile makers
-medicine: created hospitals, germ-theory of disease
what were the causes and consequences of the crusades
most fighting in jerusalem and Constantinople
Causes:Not caused by Muslim control of holy land;Turks attacked Byzantines- asked Pope for help;Pope Urban II (1095)-call to arms to recapture holy land from turks
-Consequences: religious violence, Europeans failed in their main objective to establish long-term control of Jerusalem; Constantinople ravaged during 4th crusade; scholarship and trade exchanged between christians and Muslims (seeds of Renaissance)
IBN Battuta
Muslim historian and traveler;primary source on world trade within islamic empire
what factors led to the growth of silk road trade
Growth of silk roads-
-Rome and Han empires
-Demand for Chinese silk
-Mongol Empire (established free trade zone and communication network)
What was the significance of the silk road? (why they were important)
-Merchants and cities got rich along route
-Ideas spread:Islam and Buddhism
-Technology spread:paper, gunpowder,compass
-Diseases spread:Bubonic plague devastated world population
The Mongols
Genghis Khan
Name for the Mongol leader; most famous leader was Genghis Khan
What skills did Genghis Khan and the Mongols use to allow them to become great conquerors
Conquering skills
-Military promotion on ability;not family ties
-skilled in art of deception
-reputation for brutality
How did the Mongols deal with the different customs and traditions of conquered peoples
They accepted everyones religion
very tolerant to those that surrendered
practice religious tolerance
encouraged cultural diffusion
How did the Byzantine Empire come about?
The western area of the Roman Empire was conquered by German tribes so the eatern part of the roman empire became known as the Byzantine Empire
The people were ____ in language and culture
The people were GREEK in language and culture
Capital city of Byzantine empire- great location for trade because it was located along waterways and linked Europe and Asia together
Eastern Orthodox Religion
Branch of Christianity that was practiced by the people of the Byzantine Empire (hagia sophia- famous church in Constantinople)
Justinian Code
Written system of laws created by emperor Justinian. Based on laws of Roman Empire.
Preservation of Greek and Roman Culture
saved important texts created by Greeks and Romans
Cultural diffusion
had a major influence on neighbor civilization of Russia.
Russians reviewed the Eastern Orthodox religion and the Cyrillic alphabet