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Chapter 17 Vocab for the official APUSH class
Terms in this set (20)
Battle of Little Bighorn
When gold was discovered in the Black Hills Indian Reservation in South Dakota, whites invaded the Indians' lands and drove them on the warpath. The war culminated in June 1876, when Colonel George A. Custer and all his men were killed by Sioux Indians at the Battle of Little Bighorn (Custer's Last Stand)in southern Montana.
Bonanza farms were huge farms covering thousands of acres on the Plains that benefited from the economies of scale made possible by new machinery and outside capital financing.
Chinese Exclusion Act
The 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act excluded Chinese immigrant workers for ten years and denied U.S. citizenship to Chinese nationals living in the United States.
The Chisholm Trail was one of the first, busiest, and most famous cattle trails from the open range of south Texas to the railhead in Abilene, Kansas.
Also known as the Sand Creek massacre, the Chivington massacre occurred in Colorado in 1864. A party of state militia commanded by John Chivington massacred a Cheyenne Indian community in an unprovoked, vicious, and bloodthirsty raid.
The Comstock Lode, the richest discovery in the history of gold and silver mining, was discovered near Virginia City, Nevada.
"Concentration" was the policy adopted by the U.S. government to deal with Native Americans in the late nineteenth century. Indians were persuaded to accept defined limits to their hunting ground. This enabled the government to negotiate with each tribe separately—a strategy of divide and conquer.
Custer, George A
Colonel Custer commanded a detachment of the Seventh Cavalry that was annihilated at the Battle of Little Bighorn in Montana in June 1876.
Dawes Severalty Act
In the Dawes Severalty Act (1887), Indian tribal lands were split up into individual land allotments. Provisions were made for Indian education and eventual citizenship. The law led to corruption, exploitation, and the weakening of Native American tribal culture. It was replaced in 1934.
In 1866, a tribe of Oglala Sioux under Chief Red Cloud, provoked by the building of the Bozeman Trail through their hunting ground in southern Montana, massacred a U.S. army unit commanded by Captain W. J. Fetterman.
Glidden invented barbed wire in 1874. It helped end the open range grazing of the cattle industry in the mid-1880s.
Great American Desert
The Great American Desert was the nineteenth-century label for the Great Plains. The Plains seemed hostile and uninviting to agriculture and were largely a grassy, treeless area with low rainfall, seemingly a "desert."
The Great Plains is the area extending from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains. It was a treeless but grassy region difficult to farm in the nineteenth century. Plains Indians lived off the buffalo and other wildlife; white settlers turned to cattle and sheep ranching there. It was sometimes called the Great American Desert.
In 1862, Congress passed the Homestead Act, which gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. It encouraged westward migration into the Great Plains after the Civil War.
Chief Joseph was chief of Idaho's Nez Perce Indians who, after a long campaign, finally surrendered to General Nelson A. Miles and U.S. troops in 1877. The Nez Perce were then sent to reservations in Oklahoma.
McCoy was an Illinois cattle dealer who in 1867 established Abilene, Kansas, as the railhead of the long drive on the Chisholm Trail from south Texas.
The Overland Trail was the route taken by nineteenth-century travelers who left the Mississippi Valley to settle on the Pacific Coast, going either to California or the Willamette Valley in Oregon. The wagon trip took at least six months.
Timber Culture Act
The Timber Culture Act of 1873 successfully adapted the Homestead Act to western conditions. It encouraged settlers to plant trees on the Plains and rewarded them with additional land grants if they did so.
Turner, Frederick Jackson
Turner, a historian of the West, emphasized the importance of the frontier to America's historical development. Other historians have since modified his view that the primary traits of the "American character" were attributable to the frontier experience.
The massacre at Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota in 1890 effectively ended Indian resistance to white settlement on the Plains.
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