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Terms in this set (83)
All of the following are true of sexual reproduction EXCEPT:
- leads to the production of a genetically identical offspring
- requires production for sex gametes
- leads to production of a genetically different offspring
- requires specialized cell division to reduce the chromosome number in the gametes
Sexual reproduction DOES NOT lead to the production of genetically identical offspring
Sex is typically determined in new offspring by -
Presence of the SRY gene
Typically as a result of mate selection, male animal species tend to be -
Larger & more brightly colored than the female
Individuals with androgen insensitivity are -
Phenotypically female but genotypical (genetically) male with an X and Y chromosome
Evolutionary thinking indicates the point of mate selection is actually -
Indirectly measuring fitness or "good genes" by healthy appearance
List 2 events that specifically occur in meiosis that result in increased genetic variation
- Independent assortment during gamete formation
- Crossing over/Recombination
List 4 examples of costs/expenses to sexual reproduction
- Need to maintain complex sex organs
- Potential error in the process, such as inaccurate separation of chromosomes
- Finding a mate & sexually reproducing
- Dependence on meiosis for creating gametes
A male peacock has bright feathers and elaborate display in order to attract the female & does not care about the risk to his life by being so obvious. This is an example of -
Why must meiosis precede sexual reproduction?
It is a specialized form of cell division to create haploid gametes
Sexual reproduction evolved to -
Serve as an alternative to asexual reproduction for producing heredity
Being genetically identical to the parents is one major difference between asexual & sexual reproduction. Why would this possibly be an advantage?
If the environment is just like the one the parent lived successfully
List 3 ways by which genetic diversity can be increased
- Independent assortment & segregation of chromosomes in the process of meiosis
- Crossing over & recombination of genes located on chromosomes in meiosis
- Random mating by 2 individuals
A fertilized embryo gets implanted and develops in the -
Sperm (or the process of spermatogenesis) is produced in the -
The trigger for puberty in both boys and girls is the production of -
GnRH from the hypothalamus
What 2 hormones does the pituitary gland secrete that are critical to reproductive development?
LH & FSH
List 3 differences between male and female gametes
- Females are born with all their ova, while men can continue to make sperm on demand
- Females have a monthly cycle of releasing one egg at a time, while males can release millions of sperm
- Females ova can be fertilized, while male sperm fertilize the ova
What hormone directly leads to the development of secondary sexual characteristics in males?
Seminal vesicle, prostate, vas deferens are all examples of male reproductive structures whose function is -
Fluid producing glands
These structures in the male and female reproductive anatomy are all simply tubes or passages EXCEPT:
- fallopian tubes
- vas deferens
An individual with androgen insensitivity syndrome develops many secondary female characteristics, such as breast development, but does not menstruate. Based on your knowledge of female anatomy, this must be due to the fact that -
They have no uterus
Ovaries are to females as - are to males
Why is puberty important?
It signifies the transition to sexual maturation & the ability to reproduce
Male gametes develop in - & female gametes develop in the -
Successful fertilization of an egg by sperm cell occurs where?
It is known that after copulation, multiple sperm cells reach an oocyte. What happens then?
All but the first sperm cell will be blocked by a layer of material surrounding the plasma membrane of the oocyte
An embryo is implanted & develops inside the -
A human ovary is important for the production of - and -
During - , a mature egg leaves an ovary & travels to the fallopian tube
An egg can be fertilized only after which 2 conditions have been met?
- Meeting & being penetrated by a sperm
- Ovulation & egg release
Put these 4 steps of sexual reproduction in order:
~Birth ~Fertilization ~Gamete production ~Mitosis
2. Gamete Production
List 3 obstacles a sperm would typically encounter while trying to swim to the egg
- Tough outer covering with layers around the embryo
- Attack from immune system cells
- Acidic environment in the vagina
A large number of sperm cells are produced by males every day. This large number of sperm cells increases the chance that -
At least some of the sperm cells will survive to reach the egg
Birthing is also known as -
Labor & delivery
Which 2 things are stem cells capable of:
- growing bigger than normal cells
- self renewal
- automatically changing their programming with no stimulus
- randomly resetting their original design
- Self renewal
What is an example of a barrier method for contraception in women?
During IVF, eggs and sperm are taken from the couple & are incubated together in a dish in a laboratory to produce -
Which of the following describe stages in the process of IVF:
- embryo transfer into woman's uterus
- reduction of GnRH production
- stimulation of egg maturation & harvest of eggs from female
- fertilization of egg and sperm in a dish
- stimulation of implantation in female
- Embryo transfer into woman's uterus
- Stimulation of egg maturation & harvest of eggs from female
- Fertilization of egg and sperm in a dish
If a woman is infertile because of poor egg quality or surgical removal or her ovaries in the past, the only way reproductive technology can work is -
By use of an egg donor
Stem cells are of great promise in the future because -
The cells can be reprogrammed to become any tissue type in life saving therapies
Cytological test called pap smear can detect -
Abnormal cells in cervical cancer
For the process of IVF, a sperm used to fertilize the egg evades the critical factors in conception & obstacles in natural fertilization by -
Being injected directly through the outer layers of the egg into the egg
What is a difference between IVF & IUI?
In the IVF procedure, the egg is fertilized in a petri dish
In IUI, concentrated healthy sperm are inserted into the female uterus through the cervix
Adult stem cells are -
Undifferentiated body or somatic cells that can replenish other cells
Why do people consider genetically engineering babies to be equivalent to "playing God by making designer babies"?
Even though the scientists claim genetic disorders will be the only thing modified, they could alter other less important traits as well
Why are adult stem cells less controversial than embryonic stem cells?
Production of adult stem cells do not require the destruction of an embryo
Which of the following is a true statement about human reproductive technologies:
- they solve challenging problems in reproduction
- they are developed due to the understanding of how human bodies work
- they use similar strategies as the body, but make the process less complicated
- all the answer options are correct
* All the answer options are correct
- They solve challenging problems in reproduction
- They are developed due to the understanding of how human bodies work
- They use similar strategies as the body, but make the process less complicated
The copper IUDs/intrauterine devices are a common form of birth control that works by -
- Copper affects the way sperm moves, penetrating it from getting to the egg
- Hormonal component makes cervical mucus thicker in a woman, which doesn't allow sperm from getting into the eggs
Why might the use of female contraceptives actually increase the chances of contracting HIV?
A woman might think she is practicing safe sex since she cannot get pregnant, but could still contract an STD
What condition/symptoms can occur due to both a chlamydial & gonorrheal infection?
Whitish discharge from male penis
Early detection of cervical cancer is made possible by means of pop smear cytology test. Cervical cancer can be linked to prior STD infection by -
Which STD infections can be treated by an antibiotic?
A patient describing his symptoms to his doctor says, "I have a sore on my penis, it went away then I suddenly got this huge rash all over me." He is most likely describing which STD infection?
***** Which STDs are caused by a virus?
What STD is controlled by HAART combination anti retroviral drug cocktail treatment & give patients a lease of life, but not a cure?
The type of cells infected by HIV in the human body, that is the reason for the name, are -
Immune T cells in the blood
One thing all STDs have in common is:
- they all result in genital warts
- they can be caused by sexual contact
- they are usually transmitted by blood transfusions
- they infect males not females
- they are all curable if detected early
They can be caused by sexual contact
Which STDs cannot be cured?
Which of the following is true of a gonorrhea infection:
- infected individuals must be quarantined
- infection can lead to cancer
- infection can lead to infertility if not treated
- males have more obvious symptoms than females
- females get it more than men
- Infection can lead to infertility if not treated
- Males have more obvious symptoms than females
What is an advantage of asexual reproduction?
It enables the species to flourish in stable habitats that are favorable to that species
In an animal that switches between asexual and sexual reproduction, when is sexual reproduction more likely to occur?
When conditions for survival are unfavorable
Which of the following is NOT true about human X and Y chromosomes:
- the X chromosome is larger than the Y
- the Y chromosome is important for determining sex
- an individual with two X chromosomes will be female, as long as the SRY is inactivated during X inactivation
- the presence of X and Y chromosomes are used in determining the sex of an individual
- the X chromosome has more genes than the Y chromosome
- An individual with two X chromosomes will be female as long as the SRY is inactivated during X inactivation
Most of the major hypotheses proposed to explain why sexual reproduction is more widespread than asexual reproduction ultimately base their explanations on the adaptive benefit of -
Forming genetically distinct offspring
There are many common criteria across species for sexual dimorphism. Which one of these is NOT relevant to humans:
- reproductive organ
- body color
- body size
The egg of a fruit fly has 4 individual chromosomes. How many chromosomes are in a somatic cell of a fruit fly, based on what you know about the process of meiosis?
Human sperm cells develop from spermatogonia in the -
In male mammals, excretory & reproductive systems share the -
Sexual dimorphism in humans is the subject of much controversy. Which of these is an example of why it is NOT as distinct as other species:
- reproductive structures are identical in male and female humans
- similarity in size of male and female when body mass ratio standard deviation is put into consideration
- body coloration is different, as males are darker than females
- all males are taller than females
- the rate of production of a male offspring is faster than females, indicating dominance
- Similarity in size of male and female when body mass ratio standard deviation is put into consideration
Why is androgen insensitivity considered to be a deviation from the rule? What rule?
An individual that is XY should be male
LH, or luteinizing hormone, is an important hormone which stimulates what process in females?
Release of mature egg from the ovary in ovulation
At the end of a non-pregnant human ovarian cycle, the breakdown & discharge go the lining of the uterus is called -
Fertilization of a human egg takes place in the -
Twin pregnancy that is caused by 2 sperms fertilizing 2 eggs is known as -
A fraternal twin event
In order, what are the 3 main stages of development after fertilization?
The entire process of a fully developed human pregnancy is, on average -
The labor phase, uterine contractions, can be increased by the medical use of a synthetic drug that mimics the action of -
Which of the following is NOT a critical factor in conception:
- production of enough sperm by the male
- sexual maturity age in the male and female
- fertilization of the egg by multiple sperm
- reducing the toxic effects of the acidic vagina by alkaline fluid in the semen of males
- production of healthy, viable sperm by the male
Fertilization of the egg by multiple sperm
Many factors from the female can affect the possibility of getting pregnant. The MOST critical of them is:
- release of the endometrium
- contractions of the uterus to allow the egg to develop
- removal of the layers around the egg for sperm penetration
- release of the mature egg during ovulation
- spontaneous release of eggs during intercourse
Release of the mature egg during ovulation
Many sperm arrive at the ovum & only one penetrates in a process called - , which also prevents the egg from being fertilized by multiple sperm
Secondary sexual characteristics, or puberty, is caused by -
The female releases increasingly high levels of this hormone, which can be used to confirm pregnancy in pregnancy tests
A contraceptive pill that continuously inhibits the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus will -
Reduce the secretion of LH and FSH from the anterior pituitary gland
A female had a successful fertilization, but it not found to be pregnant after a few weeks because?
No implantations occurred after the fertilization
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