Cambridge English Proficiency, Unit 08
Terms in this set (134)
(1) the act of attempting to obtain money by intimidation, as by threats to disclose discreditable information; (erpressen)
(2) the exertion of pressure or threats, esp unfairly, in an attempt to influence someone's actions
(1) (law) the unlawful killing of one human being by another without malice aforethought (rather unintentionally-> Totschlag)
(2) (loosely) the killing of a human being
(ˈmælɪs əˈfɔːˌθɔːt )
(1) the predetermination to do an unlawful act, esp to kill or seriously injure; (böswillige Absicht)
(2) the intent with which an unlawful killing is effected, which must be proved for the crime to constitute murder See also murder, manslaughter
(1) the killing of a human being by another person;
(2) a person who kills another
the publication of defamatory matter in permanent form, as by a written or printed statement, picture, etc
1) [UNCOUNTABLE] LEGAL the crime of saying something about someone that is not true and is likely to damage their reputation
2) [COUNTABLE/UNCOUNTABLE] something bad that you say about someone that is not true and may damage their reputation
(What you said about Barbara is cruel and vicious slander.)
1) extremely violent
"a vicious attack/assault"
2) extremely unkind or unpleasant
"It was only a vicious rumour."
(criminal law) the act of intentionally or recklessly setting fire to another's property or to one's own property for some improper reason
the act of stealing goods from a shop during shopping hours
the crime of stealing. Someone who commits this crime is called a thief
(There have been a lot of thefts recently.
theft of: He was charged with the theft of club funds.)
the crime of taking money or property illegally, often by using threats or violence
(a bank robbery
He was arrested and charged with armed robbery (=robbery using a gun).)
(⇒ He is charged with causing death by reckless driving.)
(law) a serious traffic offence whereby the driver of a vehicle disregards the rules of the road, driving very dangerously, causing accidents or other damage
to rape a woman (=force her to have sex)
(derivatives: molestation, molester)
1) to hurt someone, especially a child, by touching them in a sexual way or by forcing them to do sexual acts
2) to behave in a violent or threatening way towards someone
to take someone away from their home, family etc using force = kidnapping
(He was abducted at gunpoint.)
a hit-and-run accident is one in which a driver does not stop after their vehicle has hit a person or another car
deliberate deception, trickery, or cheating intended to gain an advantage
1) dishonest or illegal behaviour by officials or people in positions of power, especially when they accept money in exchange for doing things for someone
(The bank was closed down amid allegations of corruption and fraud.
the arrest of a number of officials on corruption charges)
2) the process of corrupting someone or something
(corruption of the morals of the young
corruption of the database)
3) LITERARY the process of decay, especially in a dead body
to give money or presents to someone so that they will help you by doing something dishonest or illegal
(They were found guilty of trying to bribe officials.
bribe someone to do something: They tried to bribe the judge to find their brother not guilty.)
1) the crime of giving money or presents to someone so that they will help you by doing something dishonest or illegal
(He is appearing in court on charges of bribery and tax evasion.)
2) an attempt to make someone do what you want by promising that they can do or have something
(Eventually, I resorted to bribery and promised them ice cream.)
someone who commits the crime of fraud
the crime of helping your country's enemies or of trying to destroy your country's government
1) [UNCOUNTABLE] the crime of making copies of valuable documents or works of art in order to make money by selling them
2) [COUNTABLE] a document, painting, work of art etc that is a copy of an original, and has been illegally represented as the original
the business of buying and selling things such as drugs or weapons illegally. Someone who does this is called a trafficker.
an immoral action that is not very serious or harmful
( ⇒ a spurious fruit)
1) something such as a statement that is spurious is not reasonable or correct because it is not based on true facts or a sensible way of thinking
(a spurious claim/comparison)
2) not real or sincere
(ˌsɔːn ɒf ˈʃɒtˌɡʌn)
a shotgun with part of its barrel (=long narrow tube) cut off
common-law wife (ˌkɒmənlɔːˈwaɪf)
a woman considered to be a man's wife after the couple have cohabited for several years
(She is being charged with attempted murder.)
trying to murder someone
(⇒ In a case of premeditated murder a life sentence is mandatory., ⇒ The attack was premeditated and preplanned)
a premeditated crime, bad action, unpleasant remark etc has been deliberately planned (=vorsätzlich)
Her remarks were clearly premeditated.)
(Do not allow yourselves to be swayed by these arguments.)
to influence or change someone's opinion
accuse (someone) of (something)
(Her employers accused her of theft.)
to say that someone has done something wrong or committed a crime
1) [COUNTABLE] an official statement accusing someone of committing a crime
(charge of: They faced charges of conspiracy and murder.
charge against: The investigation resulted in criminal charges against three police officers.
press/prefer/bring charges (=officially accuse someone of a crime): In the end we decided not to press charges.
drop the charges (=no longer officially accuse someone of a crime): She was accused of shoplifting but the police later dropped the charges.
release someone without charge: He was questioned for six hours but released without charge.)
acquit of (əˈkwɪt)
[USUALLY PASSIVE] to state officially that someone is not guilty of the crime they were accused of
acquit someone of something: He was eventually acquitted of the charges./She was relieved when the jury acquitted her of attempting to rob the bank.
be released on bail
you can be~~~ at the police station after you've been charged. This means you will be able to go home until your court hearing. If you are given bail, you might have to agree to conditions like: living at a particular address. not contacting certain people. Normally you have to pay a large amount to be released on bail.
find guilty of
to decide guilt or innocence and deliver a verdict in a court of law
(transitive) to bring (a charge or accusation) against someone
lodge an appeal against
file an appeal against
(e.g the defendants said they will lodge an appeal against the court's decision.)
(⇒ to crack a safe)
(transitive) to break into or force open
defraud of (dɪˈfrɔːd)
(transitive) to take away or withhold money, rights, property, etc, from (a person) by fraud; cheat; swindle
(e.g. They conspired to defraud the government.)
remand in custody (rɪˈmɑːnd)
(be remanded in custody /=kept in prison until your trial:
All five men were remanded in custody until Wednesday.)
(law) (of a court or magistrate) to send (a prisoner or accused person) back into custody or admit him or her to bail, esp on adjourning a case for further inquiries to be made.
released on parole
if you are in prison but show a good behaviour you may be released on parole
someone who has been accused of a crime and is on trial
appeal against a verdict
if you don't agree with a judge's verdict then you can appeal against it.
crack down on
("the police will crack down on criminals"
get tough on, take severe/stern measures against, clamp down on, come down heavily on)
take severe measures against / to start dealing with someone or something much more strictly
not to be swayed by
not to be influenced by
show no remorse for
be very unapologetic
put an end to, put a stop to, bring to an end, end, bring to a stop, halt, bring to a halt
be a law unto yourself
to refuse to behave like everyone else, or to believe you can do whatever you want to;
a person or thing that is outside established laws
regard yourself above the law
(Ministers seem to regard themselves as above the law)
not having to obey laws or rules
stick to the letter of the law
(by sticking to the letter of the law, the spirit of the law could be lost.)
stick to the exact words that are used in a law, rather than its general meaning
the law of the jungle
(if politics reflects the law of the jungle, beware of the tigers)
the principle that those who are strong and apply ruthless self-interest will be most successful
lay down the law
(She could have at least waited until tomorrow to lay down the law so heavily)
to forcefully make known what you think should happen
take the law into your own hands
(when we take the law into our own hands we become little better than criminals)
punish someone for an offence according to one's own ideas of justice, especially in an illegal or violent way
wreak havoc on
(The recent storms have wreaked havoc on crops.)
to cause something to happen in a violent and often uncontrolled way
destruction; devastation; ruin
(⇒ to wreak havoc on the enemy)
to inflict (vengeance, etc) or to cause (chaos, etc)
play havoc with
(often followed by with) to cause a great deal of damage, distress, or confusion (to)
the act of or desire for taking revenge; retributive punishment
having appeared, happened, or been made not long ago; modern, fresh, or new
general or widespread agreement (esp in the phrase consensus of opinion); agreement among all the people involved
(far-reaching repercussions — далеко идущие последствия;
⇒ the repercussions of the war are still keenly felt)
(often plural) a result or consequence, esp one that is somewhat removed from the action or event which precipitated it
(flagrant wickedness — чудовищное злодеяние)
(1) openly outrageous;
(2) (obsolete) burning or blazing
(to fashion an international body to promote peace and prevent future war)
to give a particular form to
(the scourge of war)
(1) a person who harasses, punishes, or causes destruction;
(2) a means of inflicting punishment or suffering;
(3) a whip used for inflicting punishment or torture;
(4) to whip; flog;
(5) to punish severely
(He received a low-key but respectful welcome.)
without much activity or reaction
the rule of law
the rule of law is the legal principle that law should govern a nation
governmental interference (ˌɪntəˈfɪərəns)
involvement of the government in the activities and concerns of other people when its involvement is not wanted
(pl. -lons) the punctuation mark :, usually preceding an explanation or an example of what has gone before, a list, or an extended quotation
Many English words have both literal and metaphorical or figurative meanings. The literal meaning of a word is its most widely used sense. The metaphorical meaning is figurative - it expresses an idea by referring to something else in a non-literal way.
set the stage for
("these churchmen helped to set the stage for popular reform")
prepare the conditions for (the occurrence or beginning of something).
pave the way for/to
(Scientists hope that data from the probe will pave the way for a more detailed exploration of Mars.)
If something ~ the ~ for/to something else, it makes the other thing possible
(⇒ a presidential campaign, ⇒ an advertising campaign)
a series of coordinated activities, such as public speaking and demonstrating, designed to achieve a social, political, or commercial goal
petition (pɪˈtɪʃən )
a written document signed by a large number of people demanding some form of action from a government or other authority; any formal request to a higher authority or deity; entreaty
an earnest request or petition; supplication; plea
a group of persons who attempt to influence legislators on behalf of a particular interest
(⇒ to boycott foreign produce)
(transitive) to refuse to have dealings with (a person, organization, etc) or refuse to buy (a product) as a protest or means of coercion
(often plural) a coercive measure, esp one taken by one or more states against another guilty of violating international law
(intransitive) to manifest support, protest, etc, by public parades or rallies
a public meeting that a lot of people go to in order to support someone or something or to protest against someone or something
(собрание, митинг /особ. массовый/; съезд; слет; сбор)
the act or an instance of rebelling against a government in power or the civil authorities; insurgency (восста́ние)
an attempt by a group of people to take control of their country by force
a newspaper having a large format, approximately 15 by 24 inches (38 by 61 centimetres)
(the judicial system)
relating to the judges and courts that are responsible for justice in a country or state
(of animals or plants) not yet fully mature
a person who is present at a specified event
the fact that someone is likely to be able to stay in a job for as long as they want to
(1) lasting throughout the year or through many years;
(2) everlasting; perpetual
a person who is absent without leave, esp from school
the act or habit of staying away from school without permission
as a general rule
(As a general rule, criminals tend to go for easy targets. )
in most cases
a crime that is done by someone because they hate the group that the victim (=person who is attacked) belongs to;
a crime, esp of violence, in which the victim is targeted because of his or her race, religion, sexuality, etc
akin to (əˈkɪn)
(1) related by blood; of the same kin;
(2) having similar characteristics, properties, etc
(⇒ a tacit agreement/approval/consent/support)
(1) implied or inferred without direct expression; understood;
(2) created or having effect by operation of law, rather than by being directly expressed
a tacit assumption
(It is tacitly assumed that the perpetrators of knife crime are representative of an alienated working-class youth. )
implicit assumption is an assumption that includes the underlying agreements or statements made in the development of a logical argument, course of action, decision, or judgment that are not explicitly voiced nor necessarily understood by the decision maker or judge. Often, these assumptions are made based on personal life experiences, and are not consciously apparent in the decision making environment. These assumptions can be the source of apparent paradoxes, misunderstandings and resistance to change in human organizational behavior.
(The possibility of eradicating crime seems insurmountable.)
incapable of being overcome; insuperable
insuperable (ɪnˈsuːpərəbəl ; -prəbəl; -ˈsjuː-)
incapable of being overcome; insurmountable
(The government is to inject $3 million into deprived areas to alleviate poverty.)
(transitive) to make (pain, sorrow, etc) easier to bear; lessen; relieve
(ɪɡˈzæsəˌbeɪt ; ɪkˈsæs-)
(Corporal punishment in school tended to exacerbate rather that discourage misbehavior.)
(1) to make (pain, disease, emotion, etc) more intense; aggravate;
(2) to exasperate or irritate (a person)
(Corporal punishment in school tended to exacerbate rather than discourage misbehavior.)
(1) to deprive of the will to persist in something;
(3) to oppose by expressing disapproval
to pick someone up
to arrest someone (and other meanings)
to go out
If a candle stops burning it is going out (and other meanings)
to see through someone (also to suss somebody)
to become aware of someone's real intentions
put something out
take something and put it outside (e.g. of the apartment)
to quench/extinguish a fire
to fall out
1) INFORMAL to stop being friendly with someone because you have had a disagreement with them
(Have you two fallen out?
fall out with: I'd fallen out with my parents.)
2) if something such as your hair or a tooth falls out, it comes out
to drop off
[INTRANSITIVE] INFORMAL to start to sleep
He usually drops off in front of the telly.
(and other meanings)
to chime with
to be similar to or agree with someone else's ideas, plans, feelings etc.
(his poem chimes with our modern experience of loss)
to chime in
to join a conversation by saying something
(Feel free to chime in if you've got something to add.
chime in with: George couldn't resist chiming in with his 'helpful hints' about investments.)
to take to the streets
to protest on the streets
1) FORMAL to start or introduce something new and important
(He hopes to inaugurate a new, more democratic era in the country's politics.)
2) to open a new building, or to start a new organization, with an official ceremony
(The newest US embassy was inaugurated today in Caracas, Venezuela.)
3) to celebrate the fact that someone is starting an important new job with an official ceremony
(inaugurate someone as something: On 10 May, 1994, Nelson Mandela was inaugurated as president of the new South Africa.)
1) to send or provide much more of something than someone can easily deal with
(be inundated with/by something: We've been inundated with calls from angry listeners.)
2) FORMAL to cover an area of land with water
a large group of people who suddenly gather in a public place, do something for a short time, and quickly go away again
hold someone/something dear
to feel that someone or something is very important to you
(This government was a threat to everything he held dear.)
to temporarily end something such as a meeting or a trial
(The trial was adjourned until Monday.
The proceedings were adjourned pending further psychiatric reports.)
a large number of things of the same type, usually bad things, that suddenly happen in a very short period of time
(spate of: a spate of bombings/thefts/violence)
a) to control or limit something that is harmful
(Increased interest rates should curb inflation.)
b) to control an emotion or way of behaving that could cause problems
(You'd better curb that temper of yours.)
unsuccessful, or useless
(a futile rescue attempt
It's futile trying to persuade him to change his mind.
The peace talks have proved futile.)
1) [TRANSITIVE] to provide evidence that shows that something is true
(prove (that): You have to prove you are sorry for what you've done.
prove something to someone: She was determined to prove to her parents that she could live on her own.
prove someone's innocence/guilt: For ten years he has been fighting to prove his innocence.
prove someone right/wrong: Recent excellent results have proved their critics wrong.)
2) [LINKING VERB] if something proves to have a particular quality, things happen that show it has that quality
(My decision proved to be a good one.
The film is proving very profitable.
His injuries proved fatal (=he died of them).)
3) [INTRANSITIVE] if bread proves, it increases in size before it is baked because of the yeast it contains
1) [COUNTABLE/UNCOUNTABLE] information or evidence that shows that something is definitely true or definitely exists
(proof of: We were unable to establish proof of her innocence.
Do you have any proof of identity (=a document such as a passport that proves who you are)?
proof that: Do you have any proof that this is true?)
2) [UNCOUNTABLE] a standard for measuring the strength of an alcoholic drink
3) [COUNTABLE] [USUALLY PLURAL] a copy of a book or article that someone reads and corrects before the final copy is made
(Notwithstanding his love of luxury, his house was simple inside.)
[TRANSITIVE] to help something to develop over a period of time
Attention was paid to fostering an interest in learning.
This approach will foster an understanding of environmental issues.
Overuse of antibiotics may foster the spread of drug-resistant bacteria.
always existing, or never seeming to change
(Money is a perennial source of disagreement among couples.
The Wizard of Oz is a perennial favourite with children.)
the act or habit of staying away from school without permission
used for introducing a comment that slightly changes or reduces the effect of what you said before it
(The United States finally agreed, albeit unwillingly, to support the UN action.)
1) something that makes people decide not to do something by making them realize that something unpleasant could happen to them
(deterrent to: Fear of being caught acts as a deterrent to breaking the law.)
2) a weapon whose purpose is to make other countries afraid to attack the country that owns it
(Britain's nuclear deterrent)
1) [UNCOUNTABLE] the act of providing something that someone needs
(provision of: The Red Cross is in charge of the provision of emergency relief.)
2) the fact that something is provided or available
(provision for: There is provision for storage in the basement.)
3) [COUNTABLE/UNCOUNTABLE] plans or preparation for future needs
(provision for: There is no provision for expanding classroom space.
make provision(s) for something: We've made provision for our grandchild's education.)
4) [COUNTABLE] a part of an agreement or law that deals with a particular problem
provision for: This contract includes a provision for salary increases over time.
5) provisions [PLURAL] food and other necessary supplies, especially for a journey.
resort to (phrasal verb)
to do something extreme or unpleasant in order to solve a problem
(I think we can solve this problem without resorting to legal action.)
relating to or causing punishment or great difficulty
by virtue of
as a result of something
(e.g. They were excluded from voting by virtue of being too young.)
not repentant / feeling sorry for something that you have done
to prove in a court of law that someone is guilty of a crime
(Anderson faces up to 24 years in prison if convicted.
convict someone of something: Robinson was convicted of the murder of his mother and brother.)
LEGAL a punishment given by a judge, usually involving a period of time that a person must spend in prison
(She received the maximum sentence of ten years.
serve a sentence (=spend a period of time in prison): He is serving a three-year sentence for burglary.
hand down/impose a sentence (=give a punishment): The judge imposed a harsher sentence than expected.
pass/pronounce sentence (=say what it will be): There was silence as the judge pronounced sentence.
commute a sentence (=change it to something less severe): Judge Miles QC commuted the sentence to three years.
to give a punishment to someone
The same treatment should be meted out to politicians who break the rules.
have bearing on something
to have relevance to something.
(Note the use of no and any in the negative.)
"I know something that has some bearing on the issue you are discussing."
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