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Art History- Italian and Northern Renaissance

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Renaissance
"rebirth" of classical antiquity and classical style, rinascita
Classical
Greek and Roman (Greco-Roman), Style: Naturalism, representation based on observation of the natural world
Medieval
Byzantine and Islamic in the East, Carolingian, Ottonion, Romanesque and Gothic in the West, Style: Abstract, focus on the other worldly, based on religion-oriented view of the world
Classicism
Art of architecture that harkens back to and relies upon the style and canons of the art and architecture of ancient Greece and/or Rome which emphasize certain standards of balance, order, and beauty
Humanism
A philosophy emphasizing the worth of the individual, the rational abilities of humankind, and the human potential for good; part of a Renaissance movement that encouraged study of the classical cultures of Greece and Rome. Famous Italian humanists- Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio, often came into conflict with the doctrines of the catholic church
Fresco
"Fresh" Painting on Plaster with pigments ground in water so that paint is absorbed by the plaster and becomes part of the wall itself. Buon fresco-on wet plaster. Fresco secco-on dry plaster. Sistine Chapel ceiling
Refectory
A room for refreshment. Last Supper found in back wall of refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan. Painting was a common theme for refectories but Leonardo's interpretation gave it more realism and depth
Baptistery
A building or part of a church in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. Often octagonal in design, with a stone or metal receptacle to hold Holy Water. Baptistery of St. John/Baptistery of the Cathedral of Pisa-Nicola Pisano (1259-1260)
Painting in Tuscany
Movement away from Medievalism through a growing interest in the natural world and the interest in real space.
Oil painting
A painting executed with pigments mixed with oil, first applied to a panel prepared with a coat of gesso (as also in tempera painting), and later to a stretched canvas primed with a coat of white paint and glue. Latter method predominated since the late 15th century. Dries slowly and is translucent. each layer of color merges with the one below it to create mirror-like finish. Unlike tempera, mistakes can be corrected. Arnolfini Portrait-Jan Van Eyck
Tempera Painting
A painting made with pigments mixed with yolk and water. Mistakes cannot be corrected. Maesta Altar
Sfumato
"Smoky" Used to describe very delicate gradations of light and shade in the modeling of figures (Leonardo) Virgin of the rocks, Mona Lisa. Gentle shading, without lines or borders
Chiaroscuro
"Light and dark." A method of modeling form primarily by the use of light and dark
Triptych
An altarpiece or devotional picture, either carved or painted, with on central panel and two hinged wings. Merode Triptych-Campin
Contrapposto
"set against" A composition developed by the Greeks to represent movement in a figure. The parts of the body are placed asymmetrically in opposition to each other around a central axis, and careful attention is paid to the distribution of weight. David, Donatello or David, Michelangelo
Gesso
A smooth mixture of ground chalk or plaster and glue used as the basis for tempera painting and for oil painting on panel-The Last Supper
Glaze
A thin layer of translucent oil color applied to a painted surface or to parts of it in order to modify the tone
Grisaille
A monochrome drawing or painting in which only values of black. gray, and white are used- Lower registers of the frescoes in the Scrovegni Chapel, Jan Van Eyck used- Ghent Altarpiece
Altarpiece
A painted or carved work of art placed behind and above the altar of a Christian church. It may be single panel, triptych or a polytych, both having hinged wings painted on both sides- Ghent Altarpiece-Jan Van Eyck, Merode Triptych-Campin
Maesta
"Majesty" In the 14th and 15th centuries, referred to Madonna and Child enthroned and surrounded by her celestial court of saints and angels. Maesta Altar-Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets
Perspective
A method of presenting an illusion of the 3D world on a 2D surface. Can use linear perspective (a mathematical system)...either one point (a single vanishing point) or two point (two vanishing points). Needs a horizontal line. Objects are rendered smaller as they recede into the distance. Vanishing point: a single point toward which any set of parallel lines will seem to converge. If these lines are perpendicular to the picture plane, their vanishing point will be on the horizon. Such lines are called orthogonals. Atmospheric perspective: uses gradual increase in the intensity of color and value and in the contrast of light and dark as objects are depicted as farther and farther away in the picture. Colors dull and outlines blurred to show distance and space
Maniera Greca
"greek style" of the 13th century that demonstrated both Italian and BYzantine influences. Frontality, lack of modeling (flat forms), extensive use of gold leaf. Madonna enthroned with Angels and Prophets-Cimabue
Quatrefoil
An ornamental element composed of four lobes radiating from a common center. The Sacrifice of Isaac- Ghiberti
Stanza
Room, Stanza della segnatura