Terms in this set (...)

Americans with Disabilities act
is the nation's first comprehensive civil rights law addressing the needs of people with disabilities, prohibiting discrimination in employment, public services, public accommodations, and telecommunications
Article IV
The United States shall guarantee to every state in this union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened) against domestic violence.
Articles of Confederation
The Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation, the first constitution of the United States, on November 15, 1777. However, ratification of the Articles of Confederation by all thirteen states did not occur until March 1, 1781.
Block Grants
a grant from a central government that a local authority can allocate to a wide range of services
Categorical Grants
issued by the United States Congress, which may be spent only for narrowly defined purposes. Categorical grants are the main source of federal aid to state and local government, can be used only for specific purposes and for helping education or categories of state and local spending.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
is a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
Clean Air Act
United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level. It is one of the United States' first and most influential modern environmental laws, and one of the most comprehensive air quality laws in the world.
Commerce Clause
Constitution, which gives Congress the power "to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes."
Congressional Powers
Congress also has the power to establish post offices and post roads, issue patents and copyrights, fix standards of weights and measures, establish courts inferior to the Supreme Court, and "To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers
Conditions of Aid
Definition. Terms set by the national government that states must meet if they are to receive certain federal funds.
the transfer or delegation of power to a lower level, especially by central government to local or regional administration.
Elastic Clause
noun. 1. a statement in the U.S. Constitution (Article I, Section 8) granting Congress the power to pass all laws necessary and proper for carrying out the enumerated list of powers.
the federal principle or system of government.
Advantage/disadvantages of Federalsim
Advantages: such as protecting us from tyranny, dispersing power, increasing citizen participation, and increasing effectiveness,
Disadvantages:It had a History of Protecting Slavery and Segregation,It Allows for Inequalities Between Different States,The Blockage of Nationalist Policies by States,Racing to the Bottom
Historical Eras of Federalism
Contemporary Issues on Federalism
Role and powers of the National Governamnt
The federal government is composed of three branches: legislative, executive and judicial. Powers are vested in Congress, in the President, and the federal courts by the United States Constitution
Role and powers of the State Government
All state governments are modeled after the federal government and consist of three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.
Gibbons vs. Ogden (1824)
was a landmark decision in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the power to regulate interstate commerce, granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution, encompassed the power to regulate navigation.
an amount of money given to a local government, an institution, or a particular scholar.
is when the federal government give the states money to help them do whatever they want them to do
is a statute or regulation that requires a state or local government to perform certain actions, yet provides no money for fulfilling the requirements.
McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819)
was a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States. The state of Maryland had attempted to impede operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on all notes of banks not chartered in Maryland.
Necessary and Proper Clause
the necessary and proper clause simply states that Congress has the power, "To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers,
Reserved Powers
Reserved powers are defined as powers assigned to the states and the people. The Tenth Amendment of the United States Constitution covers the subject of reserved powers.
Selective Incorporation
Selective incorporation is a constitutional doctrine that ensures states cannot enact laws that take away the constitutional rights of American citizens that are enshrined in the Bill of Rights.
Strict vs Lose Interpretation of the consistution
Thomas Jefferson believed in a strict construction of the Constitution. He believed people should follow exactly what was stated and allowed in the document. When it came to the national bank, he believed in a strict interpretation, as well.
Supremacy Clause
The Supremacy Clause of the United States Constitution (Article VI, Clause 2) establishes that the Constitution, federal laws made pursuant to it, and treaties made under its authority, constitute the supreme law of the land.
Tenth Amendment
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
The Voting Rights Act, signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson (1908-73) on August 6, 1965, aimed to overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels that prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote under the 15th Amendment (1870) to the Constitution of the United States.
Welfare Reform Act of 1996
States federal law considered to be a major welfare reform. ... President Bill Clinton signed PRWORA into law on August 22, 1996, fulfilling his 1992 campaign promise to "end welfare as we have come to know it".