Terms in this set (289)
When a behavior is met with an aversive stimulus designed to reduce the frequency of the behavior
Macro level, society, Emile Durkheim
Micro, individual level
Individuals perform better at easy task when surrounded by others compared to when they perform task in solitude. The opposite is true for a challenging task
The belief that society evolves through struggle or conflict between social structures, which are each trying to get the largest possible share of limited resources.
Which of the following is the correct chronological order of the stages of psychosexual development?
Oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages
a less severe pattern of depression, is characterized by the sad mood, lack of interest, and loss of pleasure associated with major depression. These symptoms are milder but longer lasting.
a milder form of bipolar disorder and is characterized by an alternating pattern of mood swings
Two - factor theory of emotion
In addition to physiological arousal, cognitive interpretation of the arousal in the context of the situation is required in order to experience emotion
Components of Attitude
Affect, Behavioral, Cognitive
Affect: emotion toward people
Behavioral: behave in a certain manner to people
Cognitive: example - stereotypes
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
Sensorimeter, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational
A positive type of stress that happens when you perceive a situation as challenging, but motivating
Happens when you are exposed to something stressful, but it is doesn't actively or directly affect you
Components of Emotion
physiological arousal, expressive displays, and subjective experiences
Schachter - Singer Theory
3 distinct steps in emotion processing - physiological arousal, cognitive interpretation of the situation, and the experience of the emotion
Event > physiological response + identify reason for the situation > emotion
James - Lange Theory
Behavior / physiological aspects of emotion lead to cognitive aspects of emotion
Event > physiological Response > interpretation of physiological Response > Emotion
Takes a long time
Cannon - Bard Theory
Physiological/cognitive aspects of emotion occur simultaneously and independently
Event > physiological response + emotion at the same time
experience of emotion depends on how the situation is cognitively appraised (labeled)
Event > label the event (appraisal) > emotion + physiological response on appraisal
Describes the phenomenon in which it is harder for an individual to reconcile different pieces of information relating to colors than to reconcile similar pieces of info
The view that an individual's experiences influence his perceptions
Double approach - avoidant conflict
Consist of two options with both appealing and negative characteristics
Approach - approach
two options are both appealing
Avoidant - avoidant
Both options are unappealing
Conducted an experiment investigating the extent to which social pressure from a majority group could influence a person to conform. Asch used confederates who were instructed to give clearly incorrect answers regarding the lengths of various lines. (impact of peer pressure, conformity)
Preschool children, play by themselves but observe another child playing and adjust their behavior in response. Not direct interaction between children
The process of internalizing the social norms and values expected in one's society
Are the norms that are deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society and have consequences if violated
Norms that govern everyday behavior
Example: holding a door open
Kinship of Affinity
Individuals are related by choice, such as through marriage, rather than through blood
Refers to society feeling fragmented and lacking cohesiveness
Thinning (operant conditioning)
Reducing the frequency of rewards for a given reaction
Fading (operant conditioning)
Reducing the prompts to remind participants
General adaptation syndrome
Alarm reaction (AR), stage of resistance (SR), and stage of exhaustion (SE)
House Money effect
Thaler and Johnson found that individual risk - taking behavior is affected by prior gains and losses. After a prior gain people become more open to assuming risk.
Mistaken belief that, if something happens more frequently than normal during some period, it will happen less frequently in the future or vice versa
Relative Deprivation Theory
Individuals who perceive themselves as having less resources than others will often act in ways to obtain these resources.
General strain theory
Individuals who have experienced negative events feel negative emotions, which lead to negative behaviors
The theory set forth by Albert Bandura that a person's behavior both influences and is influenced by personal factors and the enviroment
"Executive function", This part of the brain is also believed to moderate emotions and urges that are generated by the limbic system and its impairment may result in impulsiveness and inappropriate social behavior
the portion of the brain responsible for regulation and coordination of movement, balance, and posture
part of the brain stem and governs breathing and heart rate
the act of viewing an individual's beliefs and customs in terms of that person's social context.
Gestalt theory characterize perception
that the "whole" of behavior constitutes more than the sum of its parts. Gestalt theory suggests that the brain superimposes meaning and organization in a top-down fashion on sensory perceptions
relates to our ability to perceive the main object (the figure) as distinct from the surrounding visual information (the background).
involves attending to and perceiving salient pieces of information from a complex environment, a process that can occur absent higher cortical involvement (bottom - up)
the tendency to perceive objects as having a constant shape, color, or size, despite changes in the surrounding environment or in the orientation of the object
one type of formal organization wherein membership is voluntary and based on morally-relevant goals, such as volunteering for the American Red Cross or participating in an anti-drug or anti-gun coalition.
Members engage in long-term personal interactions that are emotionally significant.
The dramaturgical approach is a social perspective of:
The dramaturgical approach is a microsociological perspective of social interaction that uses a theatrical metaphor to explain processes of interaction. In essence, it asserts that people are performers on a stage; the method of presentation is based on social factors such as norms, and can be modified to match the interaction's purpose. (symoblic interactionism)
George Herbert Mead, as children mature, they are socialized to understand what is expected of them by society.
Charles Cooley, suggests that one's sense of self develops through interactions with others is society.
Suggests that self - concept is more than just the product of self - reflection. Instead, the way in which people see themselves is based on how they believe others perceive them during social interactions
involves the categorizations of things (such as clothing or toys) as "for boys" or "for girls."
refers to benefits acquired through social networks.
refers to a socioeconomic system in which people rise according to their merit, with the concept of merit including hard work and intelligence.
Refers to ways that the experiment applies to the environment
Differential association theory
individuals engage in criminal choice because they are exposed to it, while individuals who don't commit crimes have not been exposed to this type of behavior
Referent Power (power model)
exerts control by appealing to the individual's desire to belong and tends to appeal to individuals through external factors, such as appearing desirable
Motivate through using knowledge of subject matter
Exert power through the legitimacy of their role
Exert control through force or its threat
Making up memories to fill in gaps and then believing that those memories are true
Post - decisional conflict
The dissonance associated with behaving in a counter - attitudinal way
When a person is persuaded by others to behave in a way that is contrary to their attitudes.
State of dissonance that emerges when a person makes an effort to achieve a modest goal
Free choice reduction
Conflict happens when a person has a binary choice which may conflict with their current views or beliefs. Once they make a decision and act, their attitudes can change to be more congruent with their decision
An influence to accept information form others as evidence about reality, and can come into play when we are uncertain about information or what might be correct
An influence to conform with the expectations of others to gain social approval
An attempt to get someone to like you in order to get them to comply with your requests
A concept from evolutionary psychology and sociology, in which people will help their relatives even when it is costly to them
Known as general paralysis of the insane or paralytic dementia, is a neuropsychiatric disorder affecting the brain, caused by late - stage syphilis
independent samples t- test
Conducted when researchers wish to compare mean values of two groups
Paired samples t - test
Used if the results came from the same participants
Used to predict scores from independent variables
Pearson correlation coefficient
Calculated to compare the association between two variables
Theory of mind
Being able to take another person's perspective
Perceiving information related to touch
Vyhoysky's Social Learning theory
Stresses the role of people and interactions in language acquisition
Chomsky's Language Acquisition Theory
Individuals have an innate language acquisition device
Which stage of sleep would bedwetting, sleepwalking, or night terrors occur?
During stage 3, "deep" sleep, there is no eye movement or muscle activity
effects refer to increased recall when the subject is in a similar enviroment as the one in which the original learning took place
refers to the degree to which males and females resemble each other. A species with low sexual dimorphism contains males and females that look mostly identical. High sexual dimorphism signals intense competition for mates, which animals from species with low sexual dimorphism typically form pair bonds and mate for life
A motive that appears to be unlearned but causes an increase in stimulation, such as curiosity. These motives are not necessary for survival.
An individual conforms his or her behavior to match that of the rest of a group out of the belief that the group is better informed and knows more than the individual.
Type I error
False positive, rejecting the null hypothesis when it should have been accepted
Type II error
Specific Real Area Bias
Specific real area bias occurs when the sampling for a study occurs at one location, which results in the omission of other populations.
act to reinforce a behavior without previous conditioning.
only take on their reinforcing value as a function of their association with a primary reinforcer
Within - subject design
When multiple measurements are taken from the same participants over a period of time. With this type of design, each subject essentially serves as his/her own control which can dramatically reduce variability in measurement and increase the power of a statistical test.
when someone accepts the conventional means but rejects the cultural goals
when someone rejects both the conventional means as well as the cultural goals and drops out of society.
An area of skin that is supplied by a single nerve, which relays sensation from a particular region of the skin of the brain
A neural map of the connection within the brain
What part of the bran contains the somatosensory homunculus map?
"Sensory strip" which is contained in the somatosensory cortex of the parietal lobe
The exploration of objects through touch, most often by hand or fingers
Law of pragnanz
People will perceive and interpret ambiguous or complex images as the simplest form(s) possible
What is the spectral range of visible light?
Violet 400 nm and Red 700 nm
Occurs at levels of high light level
Occurs at dawn or dust at includes both rods and cones
Occurs at levels of very low light
The special mapping of sound frequencies that are processed by the brain, also called the tonotopic map
What are two requirements for humans to hear?
Pressurized sound wave (stimulus) and hair cell (receptor in the cochlea)
Do higher or lower frequencies penetrate deeper into the cochlea?
Lower, longer wavelengths can travel further
There are varying hair cells in cochlea and allows brain to distinguish between high and low frequency sounds
Region of reduced amplitude of a sound because it is obstructed by the head
Affect the same side / part of the body
Labeled - Line
Theory of olfaction describes a scenario where each receptor would respond to specific stimuli and is directly linked to the brain
Olfaction asserts that the vibrational frequency of a molecule gives that molecule its specific odor profile
Asserts that odors fit into receptors similar to a lock and key
What are the four types of brainwave and what level of consciousness are they associated with?
Beta: association with awake / concentration
Alpha: daydreaming state
Theta: slower / frequency than alpha waves. Right after you fall asleep/when you are sleeping lightly
Delta Waves: slower/lower frequency than theta waves. Deep sleep or coma
What is the order of sleep cycles and how long is one cycle?
Each cycle lasts 90 minutes and we cycle through them 4-5 ties per long period of sleep
What is the primary role of hypocritin / orexin?
The CNS is to control sleep and arousal
Social influence theory
People do and report what's expected of them, like actors caught up in their roles
What us an analgesic?
Substance that reduces pain perception
Inhaling drugs through the nose. Goes directly to the brain
What is cross - tolerance?
A reduction in the efficacy or responsiveness to a novel drug due to a common CNS target
Posner's model of attention
Alerting: becoming and staying attentive toward the surrounding
Orienting: directing of attention to a specific stimulus
Executive Attention: goal - directed behavior, monitoring conflicts between the internal processes, and anticipating
Broadbent's early selection theory
Sensory register > selective filter > perceptual process > conscious
Deutch and Deutch's Late selection Theory
Sensory register > perceptual process > selective filter > conscious
You register and assign everything meaning but then selective filter decides what you pass on to conscious awareness
Treisman's Attentuation Theory
Sensory register > attenuator > perceptual process > conscious
pigmented black in humans, is a network of blood vessels that helps nourish the retina.
occurs whenever energy is transformed from one form to another; in this case (eyeball) light is transformed to electrical energy by rods and cones
A theory of hearing which states that our perception of sound depends on where each component frequency produces vibrations along the basilar membrane
change over time of receptor to a constant stimulus - down regulation - of a sensory receptor in the body
Ex: as you push down with your hand, receptors experience constant pressure. But after a few seconds receptors no longer are firing
up regulation. Opposite of sensory adaptation
Proprioception v. Kinesthesia
Proprioception includes sense of balance/ position, while kiesthesia includes sense of movement
Propricoception is cognitive, kinesthesia is behavioral
are a burst of rapid brain activity. May help inhibit certain perceptions so we maintain a tranquil state during sleep
suppress cortical arousal and keep you asleep
Freud Theory of dreams
Manifest Content = literal meaning
Latent content = hidden meaning
Activation Synthesis Hypothesis
Brain gets a lot of neural impulses in brainstem, which is sometimes interpreted by the frontal cortex.
Our brain is simply trying to find meaning from random brain activity. Therefore dreams might not have meaning
controls motor function
Johnson and Heinz
working off the Treisman's Attenuation Theory, proposed that the location of the information attenuator was able to be varied by the listener depending on the demand necessitated by a particular attention task
Spotlight model of attention
Takes info from 5 senses, but we don't pay attention to everything
Priming: where exposure to one stimulus affects response to another stimulus, even if we haven't been consciously paying attention to it
Resource model of attention
we have limited resources in attention. Resources that are easily over tasked if we try to pay attention to multiple things at once.
Three factors have an influence on our ability to perform multiple tasks at once
Task similarity, task difficulty, practice
remembering simple facts like meanings of words (explicit memory)
memory in which previous experiences aid the performance of a task without conscious awareness of these experiences (explicit memory)
new learning impairs old info. Refers to later information interfering with memory for earlier information
something you learned in the past impairs learning in the future. Earlier information interferes with later information
all ideas in your brain are connected together. Pulling up one memory pulls up others as well
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
Stage 1: 0-2 years old - sensoritmotor stage, object permanence
Stage 2: 2-7 years old - preoperational stage, pretend play, egocentric
Stage 3: 7-11 - concrete operational, conservation, empathy, basic math skills
Stage 4: 12+ - formal operational stage, abstract, moral reasoning
Means - end analysis
a heuristic where we analyze main problem and break it down into smaller problems
co - occurrence of two instances is more likely than a single one. People tend to think the probability of 2 events occurring together is higher than the probability of one alone.
first to develop an intelligence test (children)
modified Binet's intelligence test and included teenagers and adults
3 independent intelligence; based on real world success - analytical, creative, and practical intelligence
difficulty understanding spoken words
left visual field is processed by the right side of the brain (vice versa)
A set of structures in the brain that play a role in regulating emotions.
hypothalamus, amygdala, thalamus, hippocampus
Sensory relay station, emotions contingent on senses
Smell is only one that bypasses the thalamus
aggression center, destroy it and get a mellowing effect referred to as (Kluver - Bucy syndrome)
regulates the autonomic nervous system, controls endocrine system by triggering hormones like epinephrine / norepinephrine; responsible for hunger, sleep, thirst, sex
Paul Ekman (6 main universal emotions)
Happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, disgust, and anger
Yerkes - Dodson Law
people perform best when they are moderately aroused
General Adaptation Syndrom
Hans Selye: Alarm phase, resistance, exhaustion
Meaning - focused coping
In which the person concentrates on deriving meaning from a stressful experience
Low - effort syndrome or low - effort coping
The coping responses of minority groups in an attempt to fit into the dominant culture
motor cortex (body movement), prefrontal cortex (executive function), Broca's area (speech production)
somatosensory cortex (touch / pressure / paint), spatial manipulation (orient in 3D)
coordinates movement: motor plan info is sent to cerebellum, also receives position sense information
(midbrain, pons, medulla), controls heart beat/breathing and cross over point for our nerves
filters info and sends info to the thalamus. Sleep / wake cycle (arousal), ability to be aware
most common excitatory neurotransmitter
GABA and Glycine
most common inhibitory neurotransmitters
CAT (Computerized Axial Tomography) scans
X - rays create images of the brain but can't tell us anything about what areas of the brain are active in a given time
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
This method uses radio waves and are exposed to a magentic field. The radio waves are added to the field and disrupt the orientation of atoms. As atoms move back to alignment with MF they release signals that are used to create an image. Doesn't tell us brain function
external, cant tell us about activity of individual / groups of neurons. Can only look at sum total
Better resolution then EEG, records the magnetic fields produced by electric currents in the brain
fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance imaging)
same image from MRI but can look at which structures are active. Neurons that are active require oxygen. Measuring relative amounts of oxygenated v. deoxygenated blood in the brain.
PET (positron emission tomography)
can't give us detail of structure, but can combine with CAT scans and MRIs. Inject glucose into cells and see what areas of brain are more active at given point in times
check stroking = baby turns head, allows for orientation nipple or bottle
curl toes when touching bottom of the foot (disappears in 12 months)
startle reaction, fan out arms (disappears in 4-6 months)
when skin is stroked, baby moves / swings to the side it was stroked (disappears at 6 months)
Palmer grasp reflex
children closes their hands on anything that comes in their palm. (disappears at 3-4 months)
the study of changes in gene expression that results in something other than changes to a DNA sequence. One epigentic change is methylation, which can make it more difficult for a gene to be expressed
Drive Reduction Theory
Drive v. Need: need is lack or deprivation that will energize the drive, or aroused state. Fulfilling the drive will reduce the need. This need - drive balance is what maintains homeostasis.
Optimum Arousal Theory
people want to reach full arousal / alertness. Drive to get full arousal, and natural high
discharge tension arising from internal needs or external stimulation. "Pleasure principle" - gain pleasure or avoid pain. Reflex actions, Primary processes, wish fulfillment.
"The reality principle" mediates the demands of reality vs. desire of the id
the internalization of cultural ideals and parental sanctions.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
4. Self - esteem
5. Self - actualizaton
Please, stop, liking, stupid, shit
Sexual response cycle
1. excitement phase
4. Resolution / refractory period
a learned tendency to evaluate things in a certain way
ABC model of attitude
Theory of planned behavior
intentions + implications: we consider our implications of our actions before we decide on how to behave. The best predictor of our behavior is the strength of these intentions and implications.
Intentions based on 3 things:
perceived behavioral control
Attitude to behavior process model
an event triggers our attitude. Then attitude + outside knowledge together determines behavior
Prototype Willingness Model
Behavior is a function of 6 things, the combination of which influence our behavior.
1. Past behavior
3. Subjective Norms
4. Our intentions
5. Our willingness
6. Models / prototyping
4 things we do to reduce Cognitive Discomfort
1. modify our cognition
3. Add more cognition
4. Deny facts
defense mechanism where someone says or does exact opposite of what they actually want/feel
defense mechanism where unwanted impulses are transformed into something less harmful
developed the humanistic theory
proposed extroversion level is based on differences in the reticular formation (controls arousal and consciousness) - introverts are more aroused than extroverts so they seek lower levels of stimulation
Jeffrey Alan Gray
(biopsychological theory of personality) proposed personality is governed by the behavioral inhibition (punishment / avoidance) and activation (reward) system
C. Robery Cloninger
linked personality to brain systems in reward/motivation/punishment, such as low dopamine correlating with higher impulsive
Social potency trait
the degree to which a person assumes leadership roles and mastery of roles in social situations
preference or attitude
Example: love for modern art, reluctance to eat meat
5 Factor Model (Big 5 Personality Traits)
Found in all people of all populations
Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory
Attention, Memory, Imitation, Motivation
AM I Motivated
Freud - Drives
intrinsic, universal feelings we all have towards varying things
Eros Drives: life Driver - health, safety, sex. Comes with love, cooperation, collaboration.
Thanos: Death drive - Self destructive / harmful to others. Comes with fear anger (inward or outward), hate
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia
Delusions: of persecution, reference, grandeur, control
Cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia
abnormalities of attention, organization, planning abilities, disorganized thinking, slow thinking
lack of emotional expression, interest / enthusiasm, interest in the world, speech difficulties / abnormalities
Cluster A personality disorders
Cluster B personality disorders
Cluster C personality disorders
Obsessive - Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD)
emotionally detached in relationships and shows little emotion
Breakdown of social bonds between an individual and community. A situation in which society does not have the support of a firm collective consciousness. Can also result in social groups disbanding, and alienation from social groups
Normative Social Influence
If we do something to gain respect/support of peers, we're complying with social norms. Because of this we might go with group outwardly, but internally believe something differently.
Just World Phenomenon
Idea that universe is fair so people must get what they deserve - belief good things happen to good people, and vice versa
Formal v. Informal Norms
Are understood but less precise and have no specific punishments
Theory of Differential Association
States that deviance is a learned behavior that results from continuous exposure to others whom violate norms and laws - learn from observation of others. Rejects norms/values and believes new behavior as norm
the phenomenon whereby established habits, learned using operant techniques, eventually are replaced by innant food - related behaviors.
idea that self - control is a limited resource. If you use a lot of it, it can get used up, and less of it to use in the future which can affect a later unrelated task that also requires self - control
Freud's Psychosexual Development Stages
Oral Stage - age 0-1
Anal stage - age 1-3 (control and independence)
Phallic Stage - age 3-6 (Oedipus and Electra complex)
Latent period - age 6-12 (no focus of libido)
Genital stage - ages 12+
OLD Anal Parrots Love Genitals
Erikson's Psychosocial Development
Stage 1: 0-1 years, trust v. mistrust
Stage 2: 1-3 years, autonomy v. shame/doubt
Stage 3: 3-6 years, initiative v. guilt
Stage 4: 6-12 years, industry v. inferiority
Stage 5: 12-20 years, identity v. role confusion
Stage 6: 20 -40 years, intimacy v. isolation
Stage 7: 40-65 years, Generativity v. Stagnation
Stage 8: 65+ years, integrity v. despair
Kohlberg Moral Development
1. Pre - conventional
a) obedience v. punishment: reasoning based on consequences
b) individualism/ exchange or self - interest: doing what is right for personal gain
a) societal Norms/acceptance: individual is good in order to be seen as good by others
b) Law and Order: maintaining social order
3. Post - conventional
a) social contract: there are times laws work against interest of particular people
b) Universal Ethical Principle: own set of moral guidelines
Frustration Aggression Hypothesis
not personality based, but more emotional.
Example: bottling up aggression and displaying aggression towards other people - scapegoating
Hypothesis of Relative Deprivation
upsurge in prejudice / discrimination when people are deprived of something they feel entitled to
the deliberate imposition of one's own cultural values on another culture
Statuses you can't change, given from birth
Max Weber (ideal bureaucracy)
1. Division of labour
2. Hierarchy of organization
3. Written rules and regulations
5. Employment based on technical qualifications
Rules become more important than goals of organization (con of written rules and regulations)
Every employee in a hierarchy keeps getting promoted until they reach level of incompetence. They remain at this position because are not good enough to get promoted. (con of employment based on technical qualifications)
dominant religious organization that includes most members of society
tend to be smaller and are established in protest of established church
the weakening of social and political power of religious organizations, as religious involvement declines
reaction to secularization, go back to strict religious beliefs.
intended consequences of institutions
unintended consequences, indirect effects of institutions
expanded on Marx by proposing that society is shaped by war / conquest, and cultural / ethnic conflicts lead to certain groups becoming dominant over others
people actively shape their realtiy through social interactions / agreement
Weak social constructionism
Brute facts: most basic and fundamental facts
Institutional facts: created by social conventions and do rely on other facts
Strong social constructionism
states that whole of reality is dependent on language and social habits; all knowledge is social construct and there are no brute facts.
George Herbert Mead
Believed development of individual was a social process as were the meanings individuals assigned to things. People change based on interactions with objects, events, ideas, others, and assign meanings to things to decide how to act
Herbert Blumer (3 tenants symbolic interactionism)
1. We act based on meaning we've give something
2. Different people assign different meanings to things
3. The meaning we give something isn't permanent
Life Course Theory
Calls attention to developmental processes and other experiences across a person's life
Explains how individuals should be gendered in society. How sex - linked characteristics are maintained and transmitted to other members of a culture.
What we expect men and females to do. Organized information regarding the order of actions that are approximate to a familiar sitation
Beyond suburbs, prosperous areas outside the city where people live and commute to city to work, like suburbs
the potential reproductive capacity of a female
Demographic transition model
Stage 1: high birth rates and high death rates
Stage 2: Lower death rate
Stage 3: Dead rate continue to drop and birth rates begin to fall
Stage 4: both birth and death rates are low and balance each other
Stage 5: world populations will be forced to stabilize
World will run out of resources, global food shortage. We won't be able to maintain natural resources for everyone on the planet
Anti - malthusian Theorem
couples only want to have one child or have children later in life
Mass Society Theory
Skepticism about groups that were involved in social movement, said social movements would only form for people seeking refuge from main society.
Resource Mobilization Theory
Look at social movements from different angle. Instead of looking at deprivation of people, focuses on factors that help / hinder a social movement like access to resources
Opportunities for low - income people in segregated communities may be present but further away, and harder to access. Gap between where people live and where opportunities are
Describes the extent to which the theory is supported by the data or results of the research. "Does the test have results that's supported by what is expected"
method to control for any effect that the order of presenting stimuli might have on the dependent variable
the process of strictly defining variables into measurable factors. The process defines fuzzy concepts and allows them to be measured, empirically and quantitatively. Allows for the establishment of a casual relationship between variables. You want to manipulate the variable at varying levels for this to occur
an observation regarding the growth of IQ from one generation to the next
the ability to form long - term memories after brain injury
the ability to remember information before brain injury
improved memory for the later information that is still in working memory
improved memory for earlier info
According to the psychodynamic theory, conflict between the superego and the id leads to unconscious conflict. The ego attempts to reduce this conflict through the use of defense mechanisms. Based on this description, the unconscious conflict functions as:
A drive is an internal state that the individual acts to reduce, which is consistent with the definition of unconscious conflict
diathesis - stress model
integrates the influence of biological predispositions and the enviroment
Regular breathing and regular, slow brain waves are most consistent with which stage of sleep?
description consistent with deep sleep, stages 3 and 4
A researcher compares the brain sizes of two groups of rats, Group 1 impoverished, Group 2 enriched. This is best described as a study of:
The independent variable of a memory study that tests the encoding specificity effect is most likely to be:
the location of encoding and retrieval
Individual wants to get rid of a phobia and spends time exposes herself to it until it is eliminated. What method of elimination is this?
extinction of a classically conditioned response
Phobias are usually acquired through classical conditioning.
depth of processing
refers to the type of attention applied to words during encoding
refers to the objective hierarchy in a society, and often more specifically addresses the class - based hierarchy
I (Mead's theory of identity)
the spontaneous and autonomous part of the self
Me (Mead's theory of identity)
The part of the self that is formed in interaction with others and with the general social enviroment
A researcher is interested in assessing the size of a patient's brain ventricles. which method is appropriate for this purpose?
A CAT scan
this is because the researcher is interested in the structure of the brain
A patient with Korsakoff syndrome is very guarded toward the therapist and is reluctant to answer questions. At follow up appointments the patient indicates not recognizing therapist but is less guarded and more willing to answer questions. This suggests:
has no explicit memory of meeting the therapist but does have an implicit memory of the meeting
which of the following is a binocular depth cue?
retinal disparity is the space between the eyes that allows binocular vision to create depth perception.
Motion parallax is a monocular depth cue in which we view objects that are closer to us as moving faster than objects that are further away from us.
In a study examining categorical perception (CP) people were presented with a target color from B-G continuum. After a delay were shown response options. If this study were replicated with split - brain patients and presented with target colors only in the left side of their visual field. This procedure would specifically allow the researchers to investigate:
The patients show CP in the absence of access to color names
If the info is shown in the left visual field the info would be sent to the right hemisphere. The right hemisphere would not have access then to the left hemisphere where linguistic abilities are lateralized.
Actor - observer bias
Refers to the actor's tendency to explain his/her own behavior by situational factors whereas the observer tends to explain the actor's behavior by internal stable traits
Thus an appropriate measure would be to assess whether the actor and the observer attribute the actor's behavior to a relatively stable trait such as intellect
refers to the process in which something, usually a behavioral problem becomes described and treated as a medical condition when it was not previously conceived in that way
defined as the stress that people feel when they are confronted with incompatible role expectations across different social statuses they occupy
A common source of conflict is the need to balance the statuses of employee and caregiver
sociologists consider ethnicity to be categorizations of people based on culture and ancestry
Sociologists consider race to be categorizations of people based on perceived physical characteristics
refers to an awareness of differences across cultures in norms, values, and other elements of culture
life course approach to health
a research perspective that considers how experiences from earlier in life affect outcomes later in life
rational choice perspective
assumes that individual behavior will be based on an implicit analysis of the costs and benefits of actions
Refers to a theory of economic development and population change. The theory suggests that economic changes, specifically industrialization, affect the relationship between the fertility and mortality rates in a society. Population growth occurs rapidly because the mortality rate falls before the fertility rate does. Over time, the fertility rate also falls, thus stabilizing a lower rate of population growth
emphasizes how social factors, such as class or race/ethnicity, affect the distribution of health and disease
front stage self, back stage self, impression management, and communication
Dramaturgy uses the metaphor of theater to understand social interactions
refers to the negative correlation between SES and health risks (or a positive correlation between SES and + health outcomes).
Halequin ichthyosis, a rare genetic disorder, causes the skin to become thick and scaly, flaking skin behind the eyelids of individuals with this condition is most likely to damage which structure of the eye?
Cornea, because the cornea is in direct contact with the eyelid
the reinvestment in lower income neighborhoods in urban areas, which results from the influx of more affluent residents, housing demand increases and generally results in a decrease of affordable housing
Sapir - Whorf hypothesis, the structure of language affects the perceptions of its speakers
Dyads v Traid group dynamic
Dyads are unstable because either party can break the single social tie
The triad, three person groups is considered relatively more stable because of the additional social ties