American History - 8th Grade
Terms in this set (50)
What were the causes of the American Revolution?
Proclamation of 1763, Intolerable Acts, Stamp Act, Mercantilism, Lack of Representation in Parliament, and British economic polocies following the French & Indian War.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
A tax that the British Pariliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies.
In response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses.
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
What was the role of Abigail Adams in the American Revolution?
John Adam's wife, she appealed to her husband to protect the rights of women. a member of the Daughters of Liberty
What was the role of John Adams in the American Revolution?
A Massachusetts attorney & politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. Adams later served as the second President of the United States.
What was the role of Samuel Adams in the American Revolution?
Samuel Adams played a key role in the defense of colonial rights. He had been a leader of the Sons of Liberty and suggested the formation of the Committees of Correspondence. Adams was crucial in spreading the principle of colonial rights throughout New England and is credited with provoking the Boston Tea Party..
What was the role of Mercy Otis Warren in the American Revolution?
New England author and poet, her plays and stories made fun of the British and helped gain support for American independence.
What was the role of Benjamin Franklin in the American Revolution?
American patriot, writer, printer, and inventor. During the Revolutionary War he persuaded the French to help the colonists.
What was the role of Crispus Attucks in the American Revolution?
The African-Native American man who was the first man to die in the Boston Massacre, also considered the first death in the Revolutionary War
What was the role of King George III in the American Revolution?
He was the king of England from 1760 to 1820, exercised a greater hand in the government of the American colonies than had many of his predecessors. Colonists were torn between loyalty to the king and resistance to acts carried out in his name. After King George III rejected the Olive Branch Petition, the colonists came to see him as a tyrant.
What was the role of Patrick Henry in the American Revolution?
An American orator and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses who gave speeches against the British government and its policies urging the colonies to fight for independence. In connection with a petition to declare a "state of defense" in virginia in 1775, he gave his most famous speech which ends with the words, "Give me liberty or give me death." He was instrumental in causing the Bill of Rights to be adopted as part of the U.S. Constitution.
What was the role of Thomas Jefferson in the American Revolution?
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
What was the role of Marquis de Lafayette in the American Revolution?
He was very rich and noble when he arrived in America at the age of 19 years old. He believed in the liberty that the Americans were fighting for and asked to help. He became a general on Washington's staff and fought hard. He was known as "the soldier's friend," and is buried in France but his grave is covered with earth from Bunker Hill.
What was the role of Thomas Paine in the American Revolution?
Patriot and writer whose pamphlet Common Sense, published in 1776, convinced many Americans that it was time to declare independence from Britain. He also wrote The American Crisis to urge colonists to join the fight against the British.
What was the role of George Washington in the American Revolution?
Commander of the Continental Army. He had led troops (rather unsuccessfully) during the French and Indian War, and had surrendered Fort Necessity to the French. He was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and was much more successful in this second command.
What is the significance of 1776?
It was the year that the Declaration of Independence was signed. Congress voted to accept the Declaration of Independence's final wording; this was the first Independence Day on July 4, 1776.
Battles of Lexington and Concord
A 1775 conflict between colonial minutemen & British soldiers attempting to take the colonists' large store of arms; began the Revolutionary War, British governor Thomas Gage sent troops to Concord to stop the colonists who were loading arms. The next day, on April 19, 1775, the first shots were fired in Lexington, starting the war. The battles resulted in a British retreat to Boston.
Battle of Saratoga
The battle which was the turning point of the Revolution because after the colonists won this major victory, the French decided to support us with money, troops, ships, etc.
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Winter at Valley Forge, PA
Washington and troops were low on supplies, food, and clothing. Because it was a harsh winter, 1/5 of soldiers died. Name given to the 1777-1778 encampment at Valley Forge by the American military under General Washington. It was America's first real effort to field a professional military against the British.
Treaty of Paris of 1783
This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River.
A person who supported the British during the American Revolution
These rights are fundamental or natural rights guaranteed to people naturally instead of by the law. They include life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness., rights that cannot be given up, taken away or transferred.
material distributed by those in favor of a specific cause and reflecting their point of view, Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause.
A person who supported the colonists during the American Revolution, a colonist who wanted to break free from Britain's rule
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
First Continental Congress
September 1774, delegates from twelve colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts
Second Continental Congress
They organized the Continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence.
Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
Committees of Correspondence
Committees of Correspondence, organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.
Boston Tea Party
Demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor. Protest against increased tea prices in which colonists dumped british tea into boston harbor.
Army formed in 1775 by the Second Continental Congress and led by General George Washington
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation.
type of fighting in which soldiers use swift hit-and-run attacks against the enemy
Sons of Liberty
a group of colonists who formed a secret society to oppose British policies at the time of the American Revolution.
a country that agrees to help another country achieve a common goal, ie. American Revolution - French were allies.
British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
Representation in Parliament
Colonists felt that the laws and taxes passed by the British were unfair because they had no____________________.
What were the strengths of the British?
They had a strong well-trained army and navy along with a strong central government with food, ammunition and the support of colonial loyalists and Native Americans.
Declaration of Independence
The document approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared their independence.
American silversmith remembered for his midnight ride (celebrated in a poem by Longfellow) to warn the colonists in Lexington and Concord that British troops were coming (1735-1818)
Marquis de Lafayette
He was very rich and noble when he arrived in America at the age of 19 years old. He believed in the liberty that the Americans were fighting for and asked to help. He became a general on Washington's staff and fought hard. He was known as "the soldier's friend," and is buried in france but his grave is covered with earth from Bunker Hill.
to refuse to buy items from a particular country. The colonists upheld a __________against British goods.
Member of a militia during the American Revolution who could be ready to fight in a minute.
natural rights stated in the Declaration of Independence
life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness
March 24, 1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.
Spain and France
supported the colonist's war for independence; were allies of the colonists
helped to ignite or spark the French Revolution