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Anatomy & Physiology II Midterm Review
Terms in this set (49)
The main parts of a neuron are:
Dendrites which functions as Receives input
Axon which functions as Carrys information away from cell
The neurons connect with each through a __________, in which the impulse is transmitted by the release of a ____________, from the presynaptic neuron. The release occur by a process called_______________.
The two types of cells of the nervous system are:
Neurons function; conduction of impulses
Neuroglia function; provide, support, nourish neurons
Nerves that conduct impulses from skin receptors to the spinal cord are called _______________, while nerves that conduct impulses from CNS to muscles or glands are called ______________.
The main functions of the nervous system can be summed up in three functions_________________, __________________ and ________________.
Myelin can be described as _________________. Myelinated nerves in CNS are found in _______________, and because of the presence of myelin they appear__________ in color. Myelinated fibers in PNS are ____________________ nerves with their both types _____________________ & ______________________.
Lipid-rich sheath that encases the large axons
Sensory & Motor
Unmyelinated nerves in CNS are found in _________________ and in the PNS are found in ____________________ with both of its subdivisions ___________________ & __________________ and it takes place as a response to the release of _________________ ions.
Autonomic nervous system
Sympathetic & Parasympathetic
A stimulus must be strong enough to change the resting membrane potential reaching the ____________, causing an _______________ will propagate.
The main intracellular cation is ________________, while the main extracellular cation is ______________, which is the case when the nerve fiber is polarized.
Upon repolarization of the nerve, by the end of relative refractory period, not all the _______________ ions would have reentered the cell yet, causing the inside of the nerve cell to be more _______________ and thus unable to respond to another stimulus, and the nerve is said to be ________________.
Central Nervous System consist of _________________ & ________________
Brain & Spinal Cord
The connective tissue membranes covering the CNS from out inwards are
The spaces between the Meningeal layers are:
Epidural space between Dural sheath & Bone wall
Subdural space between Dura mater & Arachnoid mater
Subarachnoid space between Arachnoid mater & Pia mater
Cerebrospinal fluid "CSF" is produced by ___________ that are found in the __________________ of the brain. CSF is drained back to the circulation via the __________________ in the _________________ sinus.
CSF is running inside and around the CNS; inside the brain in the ____________________, and in the spinal cord in the _______________. CSF however is circulating around the CNS in __________________ space.
The space in each cerebral hemisphere is ________________-, both are connected to the ___________________ in the Diencephalon, where it is located between the two ________. Following the _________________ in the Diencephalon. CSF is going to the ________________________ between the cerebellum and the _______________________.
Frontal lobe is mainly a __________________lobe and the centers it are:
A.) Precentral gyrus (concentration, planning, problem solving)
B.) Motor speech (Broca's)
C.) Motor association
D.) Conjugate eye movement
Parietal lobe is mainly a _______________ lobe and it contains:
A.) Post central gyrus
B.) Sensory speech (Wemicke's area)
Temporal lobe contains
Occipital lobe contains
Diencephalon contains the following centers:
A.) Thalamus (the major portion of the Diencephalon)
B.) Hypothalamus (Multiple functions for homeostasis)
C.) Basal ganglia (Coordinate muscle movement):
i.) globus pallidus
ii.) caudate nucleus
A group of centers in the brain stem, responsible for wakefulness are collectively termed the ____________________
Damage to centers in the brain will lead to specific lesions, depending on the functions of these centers, some examples would include:
A.) Primary motor cortex____________________________
B.) Primary sensory cortex _____________________________
C.) Brocas's area _________________________________________
D.) Disruption of blood supply to brain centers ________________________
A.) Inability to move one half of body, usually the opposite side of lesion (hemiplegia)
B.) Inability to feel one half of body, usually the opposite side of lesion (hemianesthesia)
C.) Unable to speak, can understand spoken words
D.) Cerebral vascular accident/stroke
Shallow groove on surface of brain
Elevation on surface of brain
Separates the cerebrum andleft cerebral hemisphere
Separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum
Separates frontal lobe from parietal lobe
Separates temporal parietal and frontal lobe
Functions of Hypothalamus
A.) Heart rate, arterial blood pressure
B.) Water and electrolyte balance
C.) Body temperature
D.) Control hunger and body weight
E.) Sleep and awakefulness
F.) Control hormone secretion
G.) Control movement
Parts of a reflex arc are:
B.) Sensory neuron
D.) Motor neuron
Corticospinal tract is
Motor tract carry impulse from brain to muscles
Regarding spinal cord injuries:
A.) At the level of the lesion, it is called ___________ lesion, in which the muscle tone is ___________ and the reflexes are ______________ and thus it is called ________________ paralysis.
B.) Below the level of the lesion, it is called ______________ lesion, in which the muscle tone is _______________ and the reflexes are ________________ and thus it is called _________________ paralysis.
A.) Lower Motor Neuron; Inhibited/gone; Absent/gone; flaccid.
B.) Upper Motor; Increased; Exaggerated; Spastic
A Dermatome is
Area of skin supplied by dorsal root
Cranial nerves containing parasympathetic supply are:
A.____________________________ Cranial Nerve #___________________________
B.____________________________ Cranial Nerve #___________________________
C.____________________________ Cranial Nerve #___________________________
D.____________________________ Cranial Nerve #___________________________
A.) Ocufomotor: iii Movement of eye
B.) Facial; vii Facial movement
C.) Glossopharygeal; ix Swallowing & taste
D.) Vagus; x all organs Thoracic organ & Abdominal organ
Ability toignore continuous stimulus
Receptors sensitive to chemical (good odor, gas)
Sensory receptors detect change in muscle tendon or position
Loss of eye ability to accommodate due to declining elastically
Loss of sense of smell, inhibits taste
Abnormal curvature of comea
Muscle contraction that occurs during loud sounds
Structures in the middle ear are:
Auditory ossicles malleus, incus and stapes
Hearing receptors in the inner ear are associated with
Spiral gangolin in choclea
A.__________________ which can be caused by ____________________________
B. __________________, which can be caused by _________________________
A.) Conductive; Eardrum accumulationof ear wax,harderning or injury of tympanic membrane, fixation of middle ear ossides
B.) Sensorinural; Nerve deaf damage to cochlea
Function of the semicircular canals is
Balance during movement
Cataract is _________________________ and is treated by ___________________________
Lens opacity due to the denature of protein of the lense (turns white); Surgery lens replacement
Distribution of Rods and Cones in the retinal canexplain the accuracy of the image, the central region of the retinal brings the best accuracy because it contains a high concentration of ___________________, which is less concentrated in the ____________________ leading to images being blurred
Cones; Peripharael retina
Myopia is __________________________ and is corrected by _______________________
Short sightedness; Concave lense
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