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Marketing Chapter 13

STUDY
PLAY
promotion
communication by marketers that informs, persuades, and reminds potential buyers of a product in order to influence an opinion or elicit a response
promotional strategy
a plan for the optimal use of the elements of promotion: advertising, public relations, personal selling, and sales promotion
competitive advantage
one or more unique aspects of an organization that cause target consumers to patronize that firm rather than competitors
promotional mix
the combination of promotional tools -- including advertising, public relations, personal selling, and sales promotion -- used to reach the target market and fulfill the organization's overall goes
advertising
impersonal, one-way mass communication about a product or organization that is paid for by a marketer
public relations
the marketing function that evaluates public attitudes, identifies areas within the organization the public may be interested in, and executes a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance
publicity
public information about a company, product, service, or issue appearing in the mass media as a news item
sales promotion
marketing activities-- other than personal selling, advertising, and public relations -- that stimulate consumer buying and dealer effectiveness
personal selling
a purchase situation involving a personal, paid-for communication between two people in an attempt to influence each other
communication
the process by which we exchange or share meanings though a common set of symbols
interpersonal communication
direct, face-to-face communication between two or more people
mass communication
the communication of a concept or message to large audiences
sender
the originator of the message in the communication process
encoding
the conversion of a sender's ideas and thoughts into a message, usually in the form of words or signs
channel
a medium of communication -- such as radio, or newspaper -- for transmitting a message
noise
anything that interferes with, distorts, or slows down the transmission of information
receiver
the person who decodes a message
decoding
interpretation of the language and symbols sent by the source through a channel
feedback
the receiver's response to a message
corporate blogs
blogs that are sponsored by a company or one of its brands and maintained by one or more of the company's employees
noncorporate blogs
independent blogs that are not associated with the marketing efforts of any particular company or brand
AIDA concept
a model that outlines the process for achieving promotional goals in terms of stages of consumer involvement with the message, stands for attention, interest, desire, and action
push strategy
a marketing strategy that uses aggressive personal selling and trade advertising to convince a wholesaler or a retailer to carry and sell particular merchandise
pull strategy
a marketing strategy that stimulates consumer demand to obtain product distribution
integrated marketing communicationsIMC)
the careful coordination of all promotional messages for a product or a service to assure the consistency of messages at every contact point where a company meets the consumer
advertising response function
a phenomenon in which spending for advertising and sales promotion increases sales or market share up to a certain level but then produces diminishing returns
institutional advertising
a form of advertising designed to enhance a company's image rather than promote a particular product
product advertising
a form of advertising that touts the benefits of a specific good or service
advocacy advertising
a form of advertising in which an organization expresses its views on controversial issues or responses to media attacks
pioneering advertising
a form of advertising designed to stimulate primary demand for a new product or product category
competitive advertising
a form of advertising designed to influence demand for a specific brand
comparative advertising
a form of advertising that compares two or more specifically named or shown competing brands on one or more specific attributes
advertising campaign
a series of related advertisements focusing on a common theme, slogan, and set of advertising appeals
advertising objective
a specific communication task that a campaign should accomplish for a specified target audience during a specified period
advertising appeal
a reason for a person to buy a product
unique selling proposition
a desirable, exclusive, and believable advertising appeal selected as the theme for a campaign
medium
the channel used to convey a message to a target market
media planning
the series of decisions advertisers make regarding the selection and use of media, allowing the marketer to optimally and cost-effectively communicate the message to the target audience
cooperative advertising
an arrangement in which the manufacturer and the retailer split the costs of advertising the manufacturer's brand
infomercial
a 30-minute or longer advertisement that looks more like a tv talk show than a sales pitch
advergaming
placing advertising messages in web-based or video games to advertise or promote a product, service, organization, or issue
media mix
the combination of media to be used for a promotional campaign
cost per contact
the cost of reaching one member of the target market
reach
the number of target consumers exposed to a commercial at least once during a specific period, usually four weeks
frequency
the number of times an individual is exposed to a given message during a specific period
audience selectivity
the ability of an advertising medium to reach a precisely defined market
media schedule
designation of the media, the specific publications or programs, and the insertion dates of advertising
continuous media schedule
a media scheduling strategy in which advertising is run steadily throughout the advertising period; used for products in the latter stages of the product life cycle
flighted media schedule
a media scheduling strategy in which ads are run heavily every other month or every two weeks, to achieve a greater impact with an increased frequency and reach at those times
pulsing media schedule
the media scheduling that uses continuous scheduling throughout the year coupled with a flighted schedule during the best sales periods
seasonal media schedule
a media scheduling strategy that runs advertising only during times of the year when the product is most likely to be used