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Principles of Microbiology-Chapter 1
Terms in this set (57)
The incubation period
Initial contact to first symptoms.
The prodromal stage
Early symptoms (i.e. headaches)
The Height of Infection (Period of Invasion)
Specific signs or symptoms (i.e. rash, fever, diarrhea)
Recovery/development of immune response.
Microbiology is defined as
A specialized area in biology that focuses on living things that are too small to see without magnification.
Eukaryotic is defined as...
Cells with a true nucleus.
Prokaryotic is defined as...
Cells with no true nucleus.
Recombination DNA Tech
Transferring Tech material from one organism to another and alter DNA.
Microscopic organisms are often referred also as..
Microorganisms or microbes.
In the context of diseases, microorganisms are defined as..
Germs, viruses, or agents.
True or false: All microorganisms are implicated in causing harm.
False: only a small minority are implicated in causing harm.
Bacteria, algae, protozoa, and helminths (i.e. worms) are all _______ that can cause virus and cause harm to a host.
They're all microbes.
Microbiologist study what parts of a microbe?
Cell structure, function, their growth and physiology, genetics, taxonomy, evolutionary history and their interactions with living and non living environment.
What are some professions that deal with microbiology?
- dealing with cause of diseases in humans or animals.
Public Health Microbiology and Epidemiology
- those who monitor and control the spread of disease in communities.
- study the complex web of protective substances and cells produced in response to infection.
-Protects food and water.
-deals with the relationship between microbes and domesticated plants and animals.
-Study the effect of microbes on the earth's diverse habits (aquatic, soil, geomicro, and astrobiology)...
How long did bacteria preceded?
More than 2 billion years ago.
Evolution is defined as..
accumulation of changes that occur in organisms as they adapt to their environments.
A theory is defined as
When a principle has been tested many times and not be disproven.
What was the role and impact of microbes on earth?
They've survived and adapted to many catastrophic changes in geological history..
When humans manipulate microorganisms to make products in an industrial setting, it is called
Genetic engineering is defined as..
an area is biotechnology that manipulates the genetics of microbes, plants, and animals for creating new products or genetically modified organisms.
Bioremediation is defined as...
A process which involves the introduction of microbes into the environment to restore stability or clean up toxic pollutants.
Pathogens are defined as
contribution to human misery.
What is the number cause of death in the united states?
small, double-membrane bound structure in the eukaryotic cell that perform specific functions and include the nucleus,, mitochondria, and chloroplasts.
True or false: the majority of microorganisms live in a free existence habitat such as soil or water to attain food and other factors.
Biofilms are defined as
accumulation of bacteria and microbes on surface.
theory in which believed that diseases were caused by a curse from God or miasma in the air; living things came from an invisible life giving force.
Who disproved the theory of spontaneous generation?
What is fermentation?
Process of alcohol reduction (whine/champaigne)
Pasteurization is defined as...
getting rid of microorganisms that spoil champaign and wine (i.e. milk that could cause disease.)
Sterile is defined as
No presence of microorganisms.
Who was Robert Hooke?
Englishman who discovered the earliest record of microbes by studying diverse metrial from household objects; plants/trees. Also the founder of lenses (single-lenses) microscope.
Who was Antonie Van Leeuwenhook?
Dutch linen merchant and self-made microbiologist.
Found interest in fabric.
Found microbes appearing to him through clothing linen and rainwater.
Sent observation to the Royal Socrety of London and recognized as a scientist of great merit.
Who was Robert Koche?
Proved microorganisms cause diseases. Linked microscopic organisms with specific diseases.
Dr. Oliver Windel Holmes found that women who gave in a hospital or home were...
Hopsital- more prone to infection
Home- less prone to infection.
The Germy Theory
theory (1800s) that proposed microorganisms can be the cause of disease.
Koche's posulates determined what.
Whether an organism was pathogenic (bacertia virus) and which disease it caused. Koch showed anthax was caused by bacterium bacillus anthracis.
What is the purpose f Koche's posulate?
To establish a casual relationship between pathogens/ disease.
What are Koche's posulates?
1)Microorganisms must be observed in every case of disease
2) It must isolated and grown in a pure culture
3) The pure culture, when inoculated in healthy animal, must produce the disease.
4) Microorganisms must be recovered from the diseased animal; isolate bacterium from subject..
Who was Joseph Lister and what did he introduce?
English surgeon. Introduced the aseptic technique (reducing microbes in medical setting and preventing wound infections by washing hands and the air with anti-septic chemical prior to surgery)
True or false: most of Lister's patients died from not washing hands.
Who was Edward Jenner?
A British doctor who noted that dairymaids had scars on hand from cowpox, but immune to smallpox.
hypothesis that exposing humans to cowpox virus would provide "cross-protection" against small pox virus.
How did Jenner test his hypothesis
Tested on 8 year old boy by taking cowpox from dairymaid and inoculated into the boy. He then exposed the boy to smallpox and the boy remained healthy.
Jenner's experiment created the first???
Louis Pasteus discovered that
avrilents did not cause disease; worked with chicken and ijected healthy chickens and they lived healthy.
German physician who first deterimined syphilis (bacterial infection) spread by sexual contact.
Alexander Flemming found what?
What is an archea:
baceteria like but do not cause diseases.
Who created the taxonomy?
Carl Von Linne.
The taxonomy is listed
Major taxonomic group- all groups listed by similarity
Taxonomy is defined as,..
identification based on series of test that allow an organism to be classified.
Bac-cyanobacteria/chalamydias spirochetes/g+ bacteria/ endospores producers/ g- bacteria
Archea- methan producers, prokaryotes in extreme salt, and heat.
True or false: all of the domains come from an ancestral cell line
Idenificitation of bacteria is based on?
Biochemical test- what bacteria does/eat and produce
True or flase: 2,000 bacteria genere, only 10% cause diseases.
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