(70-642) Ch.2 Key Terms

MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration (70-642) Course Technology - Cengage Learning Chapter 2 - Installing Windows Server 2008
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activation threshold
The minimum number of physical computers in a network environment needed before a Key Management Service (KMS) server begins issuing activations
answer file
A file used during an unattended setup to proide configuration to Setup.exe. All answer files used by Windows Server 2008 are eXtensible Markup Language based and are created by using Windows System Image Manager (WSIM).
attended installation
An installation that requires a network administrator to be present to answer configuration questions presented during Windows Server 2008 installations.
Audit Mode
An advanced generalization mode that allows administrators to perform additional application and driver modifications to a specific image. This is one of the two options available when using System Preparation Tool (Sysprep) on an operating system.
CD boot installation
An installation of Windows Server 2008 that initiates setup.exe by using CD, DVD, or USB drive.
clean installation
A complete installation of the operating system onto a new or reformatted disk drive. By their nature, clean installations, or migrations, do not transfer any settings from previous operating systems installed on a server.
client access list (CAL)
A license that grants the right to access a server's resources to a user or computer device. You need CAL for each client connection to a Windows Server 2008 server.
client machine identification (CMID)
A unique client ID stored in the KMS database as part of activation threshold enumeration.
datagram
A packet that is sent using a networking service, such as Internet Protocol (IP) or User Datagram Protocol (UDP). IP and UDP are unreliable services because they do not inform the sender of delivery failure. Reliable services such as TCP provide senders information on failure of delivery
device-based CAL
A client access license (CAL) purchased for each computer accessing server resources. Because any number of users can use one device-based CAL, this is the license of choice in situations where many users access resources from a few client computers
eXtensible Markup Language (XML)
A standard specification for annotating and formatting data exchanged between applications
generalization
A process performed by Sysprep to prepare a computer running Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008 for imaging. The computer security identifier (SID), computer name, user profiles, and hardware information are removed during generalization
image
A collection of files stored in a single file. Windows Server 2008 uses .wim file format for images. Typically, an image represents a file that is used to deploy new operating systems to computers
image file
A file that stores one or more images. In Windows Server 2008, the .wim file format is used. Windows Server 2008 uses single-instance storage to minimize the size of an image file containing multiple images
ImageX
A command-line tool that enables organizations to capture, modify, and apply file-based disk images for rapid deployment
image-based installation
An installation of Windows Server 2008 that requires you create a customized image and apply it to each computer you are deploying. You use ImageX to create this customized installation. The image can include applications as well as the operating system. You use Windows PE to initiate the connection with the remote share, often via an unattend.xml file
installation script
A file that automates the installation of services and features that you would normally enter manually during the process
kernel code
The programmatic logic,or code, that makes up the kernel
Key Management Services (KMS)
An internal service for activating all comupters within an enterprise network without the computers contacting Microsoft
KMS host
A server or computer hosting the KMS service and database
KMS client
A server or computer that contacts the KMS host for activation and assignment of a client machine ID
license
The right to install an instance of Windows Server 2008 you purchased on a single physical computer
local area network (LAN)
A computer network covering a small geographic area that has high data transfer speeds and does not require leased telecommunications lines such as T1 or ISDN lines. LANs are often installed in homes, offices, and groups of buildings that are interconnected via high-speed network connections
Multiple Activation Key (MAK)
A key you can use to activate individual computers or a group of computers within your environment. Each computer communicates with special servers at Microsoft responsible for managing and maintaining activation records for its customers. By design, a computer can be activated only a limited number of times before activations are no longer allowed
module
An independent unit of programmatic logic
modularization
A design of the basic architecture of the Windows operating system so that it uses modules and provides a selective capability to customize Windows Server 2008 by swapping out modules
multicast
A communications technology that allows multiple computers to receive a communication simultaneously
New Technology File System (NTFS)
The file system of choice for current and legacy Windows operating systems in the Windows NT family
network distribution share
A share configured through WSIM to store drivers and packages that can be added to Windows Vista during installation
network distribution share installation
An installation of Windows Server 2008 that initiates setup.exe via a distribution share located on the network or network distribution share. Windows Preinstallation Environment (PE) is used to initiate the connection with the remote share often via an unattend.xml file
original equipment manufacturer (OEM)
A company that originally produced a piece of hardware
OEM licenseing
OEM copies of Windows are installed on specific systems, and the license is linked to that specific hardware. This means that OEM copies of Windows cannot be reinstalled on a new piece of hardware
out-of-box experience (OOBE)
A feature that removes the SIDs, unique characteristics, and applications from the OS. This allows it to be more easily imaged and deployed to new clients. OOBE is one of two options available when performing Sysprep on an operating system
packet
A formatted block of data carried by a packet mode computer network
Per Server mode
The CAL type where a separate Windows CAL is required for each device or user that accesses the resources on a specific server, not all network servers
Per User or Per Device mode
The CAL type where a separate Windows CAL is required for each device or user that accesses resources on any network server
Preboot eXecution Environment (PXE)
An industry standard that allows PXE-compliant computers to boot the network using their network card, and install an operating system to facilitate processes such as imaging
product key group
A group of products that identifies the type of MAK or KMS key required to install specific operating system editions
product activation
A process put in place by Microsoft to reduce piracy. Unique information about your computer is sent to Microsoft to ensure that operating systems such as Windows Server 2008 are installed on only the allowable number of systems. Activation is usually done over the internet, but you can activate via a telephone connection if necessary
read-only domain controller (RODC)
A new type of domain controller in Windows Server 2008. Its main purpose is to improve security in branch office deployments that need additional physical security and on-site technical staff
retail licensing
OEM copies of Windows are installed on specific systems, and the license is linked to that specific hardware. This means that OEM copies of Windows cannot be reinstalled on a new piece of hardware
security identifier (SID)
A unique name given to objects in a Windows environment. The SID is used for managing security and access in a Windows environment
System Preparation tool (Sysprep)
A tool that prepares an installation of Windows for imaging and deployment by modifying a system to create a new SID and other unique information the next time it starts. Sysprep slao removes user and computer-specific information that should not be transferred to new images. Often, this process is referred to as generalization
single-instance storage (SIS)
A process that eliminates data duplication by allowing multiple users, computers, or processes to use the same files and data. A WIM image uses SIS to reduce its size by allowing image instances within a single WIM file to share files
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
The protocol used for transferring images across the network. TFTP is a key component of the PXE, the backbone of the Windows Deployment Services. Based on the UDP, TFTP traffic is connectionless in nature, meaning it does not guarantee sequencing or even arrival of data packets, or datagrams
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
A core IP suite protocol that provides connectionless transport with no guarantees for delivery and no protection from duplication. Because UDP does not check for delivery success or failure, it is faster and more efficient protocol for applications requiring speed instead of guarantee of delivery. Multicast and DNS are two services that use UDP
unattend.xml
An answer file used during the installation of Windows Server 2008. It is specifically sought out during installation phases to provide information for automating an installation
unattended installation
An installation that does not require an administrator's input because it uses answer files and scripts for automation
upgrade installation
An installation that migrates all of the settings from an existing operating system to Windows Server 2008
user-based CAL
A CAL that allows one user to access server resources from unknown or multiple devices
virtual license
A license to install an operating system within a virtual machine (VM) guest
VM guest
An instance of an operating system like Windows Server 2008 that is running within a software-based workspace provided by a virtualization application such as Hyper-V
VM host
A computer running a virtualization application that provides software-based workspaces for VM guests. Examples include Virtual Server 2005 R2 and Hyper-V
Volume Activation 2.0 (VA 2.0)
The latest volume activation process used by Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista
Volume Activation Management Tool (VAMT)
A tool used for proxy activation of a MAK, allowing activations of a group of computers with a single connection to Microsoft. VAMT activates your MAK with Microsoft while it manages the activations of your network clients internally in its database
volume licensing
A licensing model where you can use an individual key to license multiple installations of an operating system. Volume licensing is often used by business, government, and education institutions because it provides price discounts based on the application type, quantity, and applicable subscription term
Windows Automated Installation Kit (WAIK)
A suite of tools that helps OEMs, system builders, and corporate IT professionals deploy Windows onto new hardware through automation of the installation process
Windows Deployment Services (WDS)
A server-based framework used to automate the deployment of operating systems over the network from a centralized server.
Windows Image Format (WIM)
A file-based image format developed by Microsoft to create and manage WIM files using ImageX. WIM allows you to mount your image files and add drivers, applications, or files directly to your image through windows explorer
Windows Management Instrumentation Command-line (WMIC)
An improved tool for managing WIM in Windows Server 2008
Windows Preinstallation Environment (Windows PE)
A limited 32-bit operating system based on the Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista SP1 kernel code. Not to be used as a stand-alone operating system, Windows PE is designed for installation, troubleshooting, and recovery of Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista
Windows Recovery Environment (Windows RE)
A new recovery environment built into Windows Server 2008 and based on Window PE 2.0. Windows RE is a complete diagnostic and recovery solution as well as a platform for building your own recovery solutions
Windows Remote Management (WinRM)
A new feature that provides administrators with remote system management capabilities. WinRM allows you to remotely run management scripts and manage data on remote machines. All connections are handled via the WS-Management protocol
Windows System Image Manager (WSIM)
A utility used to create answer files for Windows Server 2008 unattended installations. WSIM can also create distribution shares and configuration sets