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41 terms

Chap:2 The chemistry of life.

STUDY
PLAY
ATOM
basic unit of matter
NUCLEUS
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
ELECTRON
an elementary particle with negative charge
ELEMENTS
matter composed of basic substances
ISOTOPES
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
COMPOUND
is a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions
IONIC BOND
formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
IONS
form when atoms lose or gain electrons
COVALENT BOND
a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
MOLECULE
the simplest structural unit of an element or compound
van der Waals forces
intermolecular forces of attraction
COHESION
is an attraction between molecules of the same substance
ADHESION
is an attraction between molecules of the different substance
MIXTURE
a substance consisting of two or more elements mixed together not with chemical bonding)
SOLUTION
when ions gradually dispersed throughout in the water
SOLUTE
the substance that is dissolved
SOLVENT
a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
SUSPENSIONS
mixture of water and nondissolved material
pH scale
measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ionsH+) in solution; ranges from 0 to 14
ACID
compound that forms hydrogen ionsH+) in a solution
BASE
compound that forms hydroxide ionsOH-) in a solution
BUFFERS
weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH
MONOMERS
small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers
POLYMERS
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
CARBOHYDRATES
main source of energy for the body. Compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms
MONOSACCHARIDES
single sugar molecules
POLYSACCHARIDES
large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides
LIPIDS
fats and oils
NUCLEIC ACIDS
very large and complex organic molecules that store and transfer important information in the cell
NUCLEOTIDES
building blocks of nucleic acids
RNA
type of nucleic acid, contains sugar ribose
DNA
type of nucleic acid, contains sugar deoxyribose
PROTEINS
polymers of amino acids
AMINO ACIDS
building blocks of proteins
CHEMICAL REACTION
the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
REACTANTS
the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
PRODUCTS
the elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction
ACTIVATION ENERGY
energy needed to get a reaction started
CATALYST
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
ENZYMES
proteins that act as biological catalysts
SUBSTRATES
the reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions