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Chapter 10 Bio 10.6-10.15

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genotype
carried in its sequence of DNA bases, particular gene specifies a polypeptide
DNA of gene
transcribed into RNA which is translated into polypeptide
genes
codes for making proteins
protein synthesis
takes place on a ribosome into the cytoplasm
nucleus
where DNA is stored
message from the gene
what is sent out to the ribosome
mRNA
messenger RNA, takes code of a gene- from DNA to ribosome, moves codon at a time
rRNA
ribosomal RNA, makes up ribosomes
tRNA
transfer RNA, transfers amino acids to ribosome to match them with code from DNA, w/ complementary anti codon , pairs with each codon, adding its amino acid to peptide chain
words of DNA language
triplets of bases called codons
codon
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid of a polypeptide or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code, doesn't represent more than one amino acid
in the nucleus
where the DNA helix unzips and RNA nucleotides line up along one strand of DNA following base pairing rules
enzyme RNA polymerase
links RNA nulceotides
single stranded mRNA
peels away from gene, DNA strand rejoin
inititation
attachment of RNA polymerase to promoter and start of RNA synthesis
promoter
A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase and indicates where to start transcribing RNA
elongation
RNA elongates
termination
terminator sequence signals end of gene
terminator
A special sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene. It signals RNA polymerase to release the newly made RNA molecule, which then departs from the gene
RNA splicing
removal of noncoding portionsintrons) of the RNA molecule after initial synthesis
introns
non-coding segments on mRNA, spliced out
extrons
parts of gene that are expressed, joined together for continuous coding sequence
translation
takes place in the cytoplasm, ribosome attaches to mRNA and translates its message into a specific polypeptide aided by tRNA
tRNA
interpreter, structure allowed for picking up appropriate amino acids and recognizing appropriate codon
anti-codon
base triplet on one end of tRNA, complementary to codon on mRNA, recognizes a particular code on mRNA
ribosome
coordinates functioning of mRNA and tRNA to make polypeptide, consists of two subuits- each made of proteins and rRNA
subunits
hold tRNA and mRNA close together during translation, one binding site mRNA, two for tRNA
initiation, elongation, termination
3 phases
polypeptide initiation
mRNA, a specific tRNA, and ribosome subunits assemble and determine where translation will begin
2 steps of polypeptide initiation
mRNA binds to small subunit and initiator tRNA binds to start codon, anti-codon UAC binds to AUG, large subunit binds to small one ribosome, p site, holds growing polypeptide
start codon
On mRNA, the specific three-nucleotide sequenceAUG) to which an initiator tRNA molecule binds, starting translation of genetic information
codon recognition, peptide bond formation, translocation
each addition of an amino acid occurs in three step elongation process3 steps)
elonfation
continues until a stop codon reaches ribosomes A site- terminates translation
transcription
sequence of codons DNA-RNA
translation
sequence of codons in mRNA- primary structure of a polypeptide