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Apush Unit 1 Key Terms (Enduring V.)
Terms in this set (69)
Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain had funded his W. voyage to N. America (after the Portuguese crown had rejected him). His explorations opened up the Caribbean Sea and Central Am. to colonization by the Sp., and thus the Sp. Empire
The exchange of new goods to and from the Americas (new world) and Europe (old world). Because these continents had developed in absolute isolation from each other, American Indians were decimated due to European and African disease.
Spanish military expeditions to conquer land. Most famous of these were Cortez and Pizarro
trans-atlantic slave trade (triangular trade)
trade among Europe, Africa, and the Americas. The Americas would give Europe raw materials, Europe would give finished products to Africa. Africa would give slaves to Am.
system of slavery in which Spanish conquistadors enslaved a multitude of Indians to extract gold and silver (to fund Sp. armies) and provide a large labor force for Sp. plantations
principle method of Spanish colonization by peacefully interacting with the NA and converting them to Catholicism. Friars, mainly Jesuits, would convert the Natives to Cath. and Sp. lifestyle
Pueblo Revolt (1680)
Pueblo medicine man Pope inspired a revolt against the Sp. for persecuting them in New Mexico. They successfully killed 300 Spanish and kicked them out.
The prodcut ofFrance's colonization efforts. Not finding the NW passage, Samuel de Champlain established this the cities of Quebec and Montreal, establishing this colony in N. America. This colony allied with the Huron Ind. (enemies of the Iroquois) and established a great fur trade.
Roanoke (lost colony)
lost colony under Sir Walter Raleigh. He could not make it due to the Anglo-Spanish War going on in England. It had failed because of the lack of preparedness, despite being well financed. Future colonists would have to be more self sufficient.
This Company had funded the first English settlement of Jamestown and eventual colony of the English crown. This company was a joint-stock company, funded by shareholders. It's Plymouth branch wasn't as successful.
King James I
chartered the Virginia Company to fund colonies in N. America
corporation owned by several stock or shareholders to fund it.
First English settlement in the new world. Located on the James River in 1607, and funded by the Virginia Company of London, the settlers didn't plant crops, seek gold instead, and expected the Indians to feed them. Because of this, they experienced "starving time" in 1609-10
First ever colony established by the English. Funded by the Virginia Company of London and chartered by James I, this colony is responsible for bringing in the first African slaves and the first type of government (VA House of Burgesses). Became a royal colony under James I in 1624
Capt. John Smith
leader of the English settlement of Jamestown. He was rescued by Pocahontas in 1609.
leader of the Virginian Powhatan tribe when the English settled in Jamestown. After he died, his brother Opechancanough became leader and the tribe tried to forced the growing number of English off their land. They were unsuccessful, because of the disease brought about by the English.
saved Capt. John Smith from execution at the hands of Powhatan, because she was her daughter. Married John Rolfe to end the First Anglo-Powhatan War in 1610-14
First Anglo-Powhatan War (1610-1614)
due to the increasing English threat, the major Powhatan Tribe wished to kill all the English taking away their territory. The Powhatans had raged war with the English and it wasn't until the Pocahontas-Rolfe marriage that ended hostilities
leader of the Powhatans during the Second and Third Anglo-Powhatan Wars with the land-hungry English. The Virginians kept expanding due to the discovery of the major cash crop of Tobacco and needed it for land. Gov. William Berkeley eventually captured the leader and was executed by a soldier
recognized for first introducing tobacco in the New World (VA). Also ended First Anglo-Pow. War with a marriage to Pocahontas
Cash crop first introduced by John Rolfe in Virginia. It became extremely profitable and contributed to the rise in Jamestown and eventually the Virginia colony. The need for this cash crop contributed to the want for more land
system to encourage the immigration of people from England into the New World. In exchange for paying for transportation costs, the people would have to become indentured servants that worked 50 acres of land for a span of 5-7 years for their masters that payed the fee. People came over because England was too overpopulated, and there were no jobs
granted 5-7 acres of land under the headright system, but had to work it to gain freedom
Second Anglo- Powhatan War (1622- 1632)
Powhatan leader Openchancanough saw the incoming English threat and wished to take them off their land. Began with the Indian Massacre of 1622 and ended in 1632. Opechancanough was not killed in this war.
House of Burgesses
first representative government in North America. To vote, you had to be a landowner/ It had its own laws and taxes and had self autonomy
The Dutch created this colony in an attempt to incorporate themselves in the growing Fur trade industry. They did this after explorer Henry Hudson had found good-enough land in this colony
New Amsterdam/ Manhattan
Created in 1625 and funded by the Dutch W. India Company as a fort to trade fur. Hudson had purchased Manhattan Island.
Five Nations Iroquois
consisted of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca nations. Aligned with the Dutch and established a monopoly among the Beaver fur trade. Fought against their rivals, the Huron for this monopoly
King Charles I
successor of King James I in 1625. Ruled as an absolute monarch and his last years were marked with the English Civil War. Beheaded by Oliver Cromwell
colony in which the king and his men run the colony and make its laws
colony in which the king gives it to one owner and he runs it. usually given as a form of reparation
head of the proprietary colony of Maryland. (owner too)
proprietary colony under Lord Baltimore, granted by Charles I. was primarily establish as a haven for Catholics. Used (feudal system) where laborers became tenant farmers who paid rent for their land. Passed the Act of Religious Toleration in 1649 and became a major exporter of tobacco.
Act for Religious Toleration (1649)
act that enabled toleration to any Christian religion but not Jewish and Muslims in Maryland`
Third Anglo-Powhatan War (1644-1646)
One last attempt to dispel the English from their Virginian lands, Opechancanough starts one last war. He is eventually executed by a soldier when captured by Gov. William Berkeley
Bacon's Rebellion (1676)
Jamestown was burned to the ground in this rebellion led by Nathaniel ______. The dispute was over how the colonists in Jamestown should handle the Indian threat. Governor Berkeley suggested that they should peacefully build forts and safe guards. Berkeley commanded that the Virginians kill all the Indians, but had second thoughts and pulled them back, resulting in the burning of Jamestown.
colonial governor of Virginia, and one of the Lord proprietors of the Carolina colony. King Charles II recalled him after Bacon's Rebellion
Act of Trade and Navigation (1651)
first of the navigation acts aimed to eliminate Dutch competition with colonial trading routes. This law required all goods to be carried by English or colonial ships going into England or the colonies.
John Calvin's belief that God had already predetermined who was going to enter eternal damnation and who was going to achieve salvation
Protestant Calvinists who wished to "purify" the Anglican Church of its tolerant Catholic practices. These Puritans would eventually break from the Church of England and settle in the colonies of Plymouth (Separatists) and the Massachusetts Bay Colony (Non-separatists, only reform)
The Pilgrims (Separatists) (1620)
Separatists who were persecuted for the Puritan beliefs. Traveled to the new world on the Mayflower but were blown off-course and established the 2nd successful colony: the Plymouth Colony in current Massachusetts
The Mayflower Compact
Because they were to settle in Virginia, the Pilgrims signed this document in which they all agreed to develop a democratic government. The Pilgrims soon sought the protection of this government and branched off the English law. This document created the first written constitution of the English-speaking world
Short lived colony founded by Separatists and other Secularly minded colonists. After being blown off course, they had signed the Mayflower Compact, which enabled them to stand together in this new wilderness. Eventually sucked up by larger neighbor, Massachusetts bay Colony
Puritan exodus (beings in 1630)
the Puritans, wanting to set an example for the Church of England in the hope that it will reform itself, migrate to the Massachusetts Bay colony .
head leader of the founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and the speaker for the "City on a Hill" speech. eventual governor for the MA Bay Colony
"A Model of Christian Charity" (the "city on a hill")
in the hope of reforming the Church of England, John Winthrop inspired many with this speech while they were traveling to the Massachusetts Bay Colony. "All eyes are upon us" he said to inspire the many non-separatist (reform-wanting) Puritans as the traveled to the Colony
Massachusetts Bay Colony
originally a charter colony, the ______ was funded by the Massachusetts Bay Company until 1688, when King James I was dethroned in the Glorious Revolution. There was then another charter enabling it to combine with the Plymouth Colony. It's inhabitants were largely Puritan and was economically successful.
Pequot War (1637)
War that combined the Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, and Saybrook colonies against the Pequot. This war decimated the Pequot from New England.
"Saints" and "conversion experience"
In order to get into office in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, you had first needed to be a high church member to get into office. To do this, you would need to go through a "Conversion Experience" and state it publicly in front of the whole religious congregation. If approved, you would become a "Saint"
minister from Salem in the MA Bay Colony, who defied the separation of Church and State. He was then banished and formed "Providence Plantations", which eventually became RI.
colony developed by Roger Williams after he was kicked out of the MA Bay Colony for being a dissenter (believed in religious freedom and the separation of Church and state)
capital of Roger Williams' Rhode Island
she believed that the Grace of God was the only way to achieve salvation (only by God's choice). believed that the ministers were not qualified.
Salem witchcraft hysteria, 1691- 1692
mass hysteria of witches in one city in the MA Bay Colony. Historians believed that it was started due to jealousy among the elite on the East side of town and the poor in the West.
series of laws that restricted the use of foreign shipping for trade between England (after 1707 Great Britain) and its colonies, a process which had started in 1651. Their goal was to force colonial development into lines favourable to England, and stop direct colonial trade with the Netherlands, France and other European countries. The original ordinance of 1651 was renewed at the Restoration by Acts of 1660 and 1663, and subsequently subject to minor amendment. These Acts also formed the basis for British overseas trade for nearly 200 years and eventually contributed to the Am. colonies' break of Britain due to the Sugar and Molasses Acts
proprietorship colony founded permanently in 1663 and named after King Charles II. The Southern section would develop into a major agricultural economy through the rice cash crop. The northern section were unable to farm and relied on pine to make a living.
colony named after James the II (the Duke of York) in 1664. It's previous Dutch governor of New Netherlands Peter Stuyvesent gave up the colony peacefully to the English. It became a royal colony that focused on trade, primarily the fur trade
Gov. Peter Stuyvesant (Dutch New Netherlands)
governor who gave up New Netherlands peacefully to the British in 1664
Stono Rebellion (1739)
largest slave rebellion prior to the American revolution. located in South Carolina. SC had passed the Negro Act of 1740 that restricted the education, and slave assembly of slaves in response to this rebellion
King Charles II owed a debt to this man's father and gave him land in the new world as a repayment. Since ____ was a Quaker, he believed in equality and peace. The Quakers actually bought the land from the Lenape living there, which was a huge difference. This man was the founder of the colony of Pennsylvania
Society of Friends (Quakers)
this group believed in equality and peace. founder William Penn was apart of this group and based the colony of Pennsylvania off of this groups ideals
Walking Purchase (1737)
agreement between the Penn Family and the Lenape that lived there that the Penns could acquire the land "in which a man could walk a day and a half" for it. The Lenape were angry that they didn't actually walk, but to no avail, and the Penns kicked them out
Dominion of New England
in an attempt to heavily enforce the violated Navigaiton acts in New England, King James II centralized the colonial system into this union among the New England states. The New England colonies were combined into this and deemed a super colony. The governor was the unpopular Sir Edmond Andros who abolished colonial legislatures and pushed for the Church of England as the official church
successor of Charles II (became king in 1685) and was a wanna-be absolute monarch. King that enforced the Dominion of New England due to constant violations to the Navigation Acts. He was also not popular in the colonies for being secretly Catholic
The Glorious Revolution (1688-1689)
overthrow of James II in a bloodless revolution and created the English Bill of Rights (created so parliament has more power over the monarch, people have more power, and required Monarchs to be Protestant). William and Mary became the Monarchs after the overthrow
Governor Edmund Andros
highly unpopular governor of the Dominion of New England for he had abolished colonial legislatures and pushed for the Church of England as the official church. Eventually overthrown after the Glorious Revolution (overthrow of King James II)
rebellion that occurred in 1689 which was opposed by elites and pitted poor and middle-class citizens against the elite in New York. Occurred after the Glorious Revolution. After Captain Leisler had successfully become the new governor, he was executed by the and Col. Henry Slaughter became the new governor
founder of the proprietary colony of Georgia. made as an experiment to take the people from debtor's prisons and make them into yeoman (middle-class) farmers. he had banned slavery and alcohol from the colony but later was repealed to attract more settlers
Georgia's nickname because it was made to house the people from debtor's prisons and make them into yeoman (middle-class) farmers
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