55 terms

Unit 8: Structure and function of plants

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alternation of generations
Two types of plants per species. A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants.
sporophyte
The diploid, spore-producing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations. Makes spores by meiosis
gametophyte
The haploid, gamete-producing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations
homosporous
A term referring to a plant species that has spores that are the same size..
heterosporous
A term referring to a plant species that has two kinds of spores: microspores that develop into male gametophytes and megaspores that develop into female gametophytes.
archegonia
Female reproductive part of a nonvascular plant that makes egg
antheridium
Male reproductive part of a nonvascular plant that makes sperm
bryophytes
A moss, liverwort, or hornwort; a nonvascular plant that inhabits the land but lacks many of the terrestrial adaptations of vascular plants.
tracheophytes
Vascular plants that have tracheids and have evolved highly efficient transport systems: water-conducting xylem and food-conducting phloem strands of tissues in their stems, roots, and leaves
gymnosperms
Naked seeds, cone bearing plants that make pollen
fertilization
Fusion of egg and sperm to form a zygote
pollination
Transfer of sperm (in pollen grain) to the egg - get male part to the female part.
pollen tube
Structure that grows from a pollen grain to an ovule, enabling a sperm to pass directly to an egg by forming a passageway / tube
angiosperm
Enclosed seeds in fruit - a flowering plant, which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary.
monocotyledons (monocots)
An angiosperm with one seed coat, parallel vein network, stem, vascular bundle scattered, flower parts in groups of 3, fibrous roots/many fine roots, examples - grass, lilies, daffodils, tulips
dicotyledons (dicots)
An angiosperm with 2 seed coats, vascular bundles in network (leaf pattern), vascular bundles in a ring (stem), flower parts in groups of 4 or 5, taproot (one large root), examples - carrots, beets, parsnips, oak trees, maple trees, roses
sepals
Leaflike parts that cover and protect the flower bud
petals
Modified leaves which are usually bright in color to attract pollinators.
stamens
The pollen-producing male reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther (makes microspore and pollen) and filament (support anther).
pistil / carpel
The female part of a flower; consists of the stigma (catches pollen), style (supports stigma) and ovary (contains female gametophyte and becomes fruit), and ovules (egg and becomes seeds)
double fertilization
A mechanism of fertilization in angiosperms, in which two sperm cells unite with two cells in the embryo sac to form the zygote and endosperm= seed food supply
meristem tissue
Areas of plant of continual cell division, embryonic, undifferentiated tissue.
apical meristem
Primary growth or growth in length. Located at the tips of roots and shoots
lateral meristem
Secondary growth or growth in width. Located at the sides of shoot and roots ex) vascular cambium, cork cambium
xylem
Vascular plant tissue consisting of tubular dead cells when mature -tracheids and vessel elements. Xylem conducts most of the water and minerals upward from roots to the leaves, rest of the plant. Transpiration occurs in these (due to cohesion and adhesion properties of water)
phloem
Vascular tissue responsible for the transport of nutrients and the carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis. Made of living cells when mature - sieve tube elements
root pressure
Positive (upward) pressure of xylem sap in the vascular tissue of roots. Is generated during the night as a result of the accumulation of ions from the soil and subsequent osmotic movement of water into the xylem.
transpiration
The emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants - draws water up the plant
translocation
The distribution of the sugars made by photosynthesis around the plant, in phloem cells, by diffusion (concentration gradient)
roots
Absorbs water and minerals from the ground. Anchors plant in ground. Stores organic nutrients
stems
Carry substances between roots and leaves; provide support for plant; holds leaves up to sunlight
leaves
The main photosynthetic organs of vascular plants.
internodes
Stem segments between nodes (points at which leaves are attached)
axillary bud
A structure that has the potential to form a lateral shoot, or branch. .
terminal bud
Located near the shoot tip and causes elongation of a young shoot
collenchyma cells
Give mechanical and structural support
parenchyma cells
Healing, storage of water and nutrients, regeneration.
sclerenchyma cells
Protects seeds and supports the plant
cuticle
Outer waxy covering to prevent water loss
stomata / stoma
Openings in the leaves for gas exchange
plumules
Develops into the leaves
hypocotyl
Develops into the stem
radicle
Develops into the roots
cotyledon
Food source for developing embryo
transduction
Receiving of specific internal and environmental signals and response to them (cell communication)
phytochromes
Receptor pigment proteins that undergo conformational changes with exposure to stimuli. Responsible for phototropism. Involved in flowering process.
phototropism
The tendency of plants to grow towards a source of light
auxin
Plant hormone made in the apical meristem that causes cell elongation. Involved in phototropism and gravitropism. Used to get fruit without fertilization
gravitropism
The response of a plant to the force of gravity. Plants tell up from down by the settling of statoliths (plastids with dense starch grains). Roots show positive gravitropism while stems show negative gravitropism.
thigmotropism
Plant's growth response to contact / touch - occurs in vines and climbing plants (tendrils)
cytokinins
Plant hormone that promotes root growth, leaf enlargement and stimulates plant cell division and differentiation. Slows aging
apical dominance
Concentration of growth at the tip of a plant shoot, where a terminal bud partially inhibits axillary bud growth.
abscisic acid (ABA)
A plant hormone that generally acts to inhibit growth, promote dormancy, and help the plant tolerate stressful conditions. Prevents seed from germinating too soon "baby sitter". Controls stomata opening. Gives plant drought resistance.
ethylene
A plant hormone that causes fruit ripening and causes flowers and leaves to drop from trees (aging)
gibberellins
A plant hormone that promotes the growth of dormant seeds, buds and flowers, assists stem elongation, and leaf growth; stimulates the development of fruit without fertilization; affect root growth and differentiation.Also, involved in gravitropism