23 terms

Unit 8: Animal behaviour

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Terms in this set (...)

innate
Present at birth but not necessarily hereditary
fixed action pattern (FAP)
Innate, preprogrammed response to a stimulus. It is essentially unchangeable (fixed) and once it has started, it will not stop until it has been completed.
learning
A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience - acquiring skills and knowledge
associated learning
Learning where an animal associates one stimulus with another. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)
classical conditioning
When an irrelevant stimulus triggers a response ex) Pavlov's dog that salivated when heard bell (associative learning- bell with food)
operant conditioning
A behaviour based on reward / punishment - also referred to as "trial and error" - associative learning
maturation
Non learning - Organism became able to do something because matured physically
habituation
The loss of a response due to a repeated stimulus, especially a stimulus that has little or no meaning.
imprinting
Learning that occurs during a window of time - irreversible Innate behaviour learned during a critical time early in life ex) geese following motion that moves away from them - can be mother or human...
insight learning
Able to do something right the first time with no prior experience (not trial and error). This requires some reasoning.
observational learning
Learn to do something by watching others do it ex) chimps learn to use tools / sticks to get ants from an ant hill by watching older chimps do it
territoriality
Defense of home range - territory
dominance hierarchies
A linear power ranking of animals, where position dictates characteristic social behaviors. Alpha (top dog), beta (2nd). Not permanent, can change
foraging
Feeding by grazing on grass and plants, predation or scavenging
agnostic behaviour
Social behaviour related to fighting, such as aggressive intimidation or submissive behaviours, but excluding predatory aggression. Usually just displays, no one hurt
altruistic behaviour
A self sacrificing behaviour where one member of a group helps another even at personal expense. Related to coefficient of relatedness (siblings, close relative). Helps with inclusive fitness
inclusive fitness
The ability to pass on genes - yours or relatives
pheremones
Chemical signals released by organisms when they are ready to breed
kinesis
A random change in speed of a movement in response to a stimulus ex) bugs will slow down in a place it enjoys, if it doesn't like the conditions it speeds up (pill bugs)
migration
The cyclic movement of animals over long distances according to the time of year ex) birds migrate south
taxis
A reflex or automatic movement towars or away from a stimulus
phototaxis
Movement towards or away from light ex) moth drawn to light
rheotaxis
Ability to orientate in flowing streams - how fish automatically swim in an upsteam direction