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Chapter 7- Anatomic and Physiological Relationships within the Abdominal Cavity
Terms in this set (108)
the smallest component of a chemical element that retains the characteristic properties of that element
Atoms can combine chemically to form large particles called _______
In the human body, atoms and molecules associate in specific ways to form ________, and trillions of different types are found within the body
All cells have specialized tiny parts called ______ that consist of aggregates of large molecules, including those of such substances as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids.
One organelle, the _______, serves as the information and the control center of the cell
Cells that are organized into layers or masses that have common functions are known as a ______.
muscle, nervous, connective, epithelial
The four primary types of tissue found in the body are _____, ______, ______, and ______.
Groups of different tissue combine to form _______- complex structures with specialized functions, such as the liver, pancreas, or uterus.
A coordinated group of organs are arranged into organ or body ______.
All physical and chemical changes that occur within the body are referred to as ______.
______ is the ability to maintain a steady and stable internal environment.
______ are medical measurements used to ascertain how the body is functioning. These include body temperature, blood pressure, and the rates and types of pulse and breathing movements.
vital signs, vital signs
A close relationship has been noted between ____ and homeostasis of the body, as ______ are the result of metabolic activities.
right upper quadrant, left upper quadrant, right lower quadrant, left lower quadrant
The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into four quadrants that include the ____, ____, _____, and _____. The quadrant is determined by a midsagittal plane and a transverse plane that pass through the umbilicus.
subcostal plane, intertubercular plane, transpyloric plane
The abdomen is commonly divided into 9 regions by two vertical and two horizontal lines. The surface landmarks of the anterior abdominal wall help to define the specific regions. Each vertical line passes through the midinguinal point. The upper horizontal line, referred to as the ________, joins the lowest point of the costal margin on each side of the body. The lowest horizontal line, the ________, is a horizontal plane that joins the tubercles on the iliac crests. The ______ is a horizontal plane that passes through the pyloris, the duodenal junction, the neck of the pancreas, and the hilum of the kidneys.
right hypochondrium, epigastrium, left hypochondrium, right lumbar, umbilical, left lumbar, right iliac fossa, hypogastrium, left iliac fossa
The 9 abdominal regions include the :_______, _______, _____, _______, ______, ______, _____, ______, and ______
Another name for internal organs is ______
dorsal, ventral, dorsal, ventral, thoracic, abdominopelvic
The two principle body cavities are the _____ and ______. The ______ may be subdivided into the cranial cavity and the vertebral or spinal canal. The _____ is located near the anterior body surface and is subdivided into the _____ and _______.
The thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities are separated by a broad muscle called the _______. It forms the floor of the thoracic cavity.
pleural sacs, mediastinum, pericardial sac
Divisions of the thoracic cavity include the ______, each containing a lung and the _______ between them, in which lies the heart, thymus gland, and part of the esophagus and trachea. The heart is surrounded by another cavity called the _______.
portion of the trunk below the diaphragm
area of armpit
thigh; the part of the lower extremity between the hip and the knee
depressed region between the abdomen and thigh
lower extremity; especially from the knee to the foot
loin; the region of the lower back and side between the lowest rib and the pelvis
pelvis; the bony ring that girdles the lower portion of the trunk
region between the anus and the pubic arch; includes region of the external reproductive structures
area behind the knee
chest; the part of the trunk below the neck and above the diaphragm
The _______ lies on the posterior abdominal wall behind the parietal peritoneum. It extends from the twelfth thoracic vertebra and the twelfth rib to the sacrum and the iliac crests.
The _______ is the upper portion of the abdominopelvic cavity, excluding the retroperitoneum and the pelvis. It is bounded superiorly by the diaphram and inferiorly by the abdominal wall muscles; posteriorly by the vertebral column, ribs, and iliac fossa, and inferiorly by the pelvis.
The _____ contains the stomach, small intestine, much of the large intestine, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, spleen, kidneys, and ureters.
The liver lies _____ to the lower ribs, with most of the right lobe in the right hypochondrium and the epigastrium. The left lobe lies in the _______ and left hypochondrium.
The fundus of the ______ usually lies opposite the tip of the right ninth costal cartilage.
The spleen lies in the _______ under cover of the ninth, tenth, and eleventh ribs. Its long axis usually corresponds to the 10th rib, and in adults, it usually does not project forward of the midaxillary line.
The pancreas lies in the _____. The head usually lies below and to the right, the neck lies on the transpyloric plane, and the body and tail lie above and to the left.
The _____ kidney lies slightly lower than the left. Each kidney moves about 1 inch in a vertical direction during full respiratory movement of the diaphragm. The hilus of the kidney lies on the transpyloric plane about three fingerwidths from the midline.
anterior, inferior vena cava, right
The aorta lies ______ to the spine, slightly left of the midline in the abdomen. It bifurcates into the right and left common iliac arteries opposite the fourth lumbar vertebra on the intercristal plane. The ______ is formed by the confluence of the right and left common iliac veins. It lies to the _____ of the spine.
The stomach lies in the ______ plane between the esophagus and the small intestine.
This tubular organ, the ______, extends from the pyloric sphincter to the beginning of the large intestine.
The ______ extends from the small intestine to the anal canal
The bladder and uterus lie in the lower pelvis in the ______ plane.
diaphragm, right crus, left crus
The ______ is a dome-shaped muscle that separates the thorax from the abdominal cavity. Its muscular component arises from the margins of the thoracic outlet. The _______ of the diaphragm arises from the sides of the bodies of the first three lumbar vertebrae. The _____ of the diaphragm arises from the sides of the bodies of the first two lumbar vertebrae.
medial arcuate, medial arcuate
Lateral to the crura of the diaphragm arises from the medial and lateral arcuate ligaments. The ______ ligament is the thickened upper margin of the fascia covering the anterior surface of the psoas muscle. The ______ ligament connects the medial borders of the two crura as they cross anterior to the aorta.
The____ ligament is the thickened upper margin of the fascia covering the anterior surface of the quadratus lumbordum muscle. It extends from the tip of the transverse process of the first lumbar vertebra to the lower border of the twelfth rib.
The ______ is a fibrous band that stretches from the xiphoid to the symphysis pubis. It is wider at its superior end and forms a central anterior attachment for the muscle layers of the abdomen. It is formed by the interlacing of fibers of the aponeurosus of the right and left oblique and transversus abdominus muscles.
superficial inguinal ring
The ______ is a triangular opening in the external oblique aponeurosis that lies superior and medial to the pubic tubercle. The spermatic cord or round ligament of the uterus passes through this opening.
The _____ is formed between the anterior superior iliac spine and the pubic tubercle, where the lower border of the aponeurosis is folded backward on itself. The lateral part of the posterior edge of the inguinal llligament gives origin to part of the internal oblique and transverse abdominal muscles.
The ________ muscle lies very deep to the external oblique muscle. Most of its fibers are aligned at right angles to the external oblique muscles. It arises from the lumbar fascia, the anterior two thirds of the iliac crest, and the lateral two thirds of the infuinal ligameent. The muscle inserts into the lower borders of the ribs and their costal cartilages, the xiphoid process, the linea alba, and the pubic symphysis.
The _____ muscle lies deep to the internal oblique muscle, and its fibers run horizontally forward.
The ______ muscle is a sheath formed by the aponeuroses of the muscles of the lateral group. This muscle arises from the front of the symphysis pubis and from the pubic crest.
Broad, flat, sheet like connective tissue that connects muscles to a bone or another muscle
The _______ cavity contains the kidneys, ureters, adrenal glands, pancreas, aorta, inferior vena cava, bladder, uterus, and prostate gland.The ascending and descending colon and most of the duodenum are also located here.
The anterior ______ space is located between the anterior surface of the renal fascia and the posterior area of the peritoneum. Within this space are the ascending and descending colon, the pancreas, and the duodenum.
The ________ space is found between the posterior renal fascia and the muscles of the posterior abdominal wall. Only fat and vessels are found within this space.
The _______ is located directly around the kidney and is completely enclosed by renal fascia. Within this space lie the kidneys, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, blood vessels, and perirenal fat.
The lower portion of the abdominopelvic cavity is the ____.
pelvis major, pelvis minor
The pelvis is divided into the ______ (false pelvis) and a ________ (true pelvis)
The ______ is part of the abdominal cavity proper and lies between the iliac fossae, superior to the pelvic brim.
The ______ (which actually contains the pelvic cavity) is found inferior to the brim of the pelvis. The cavity of this is continuous with that of the pelvis major.
false pelvis, false, true
The _______ is bound posteriorly by the lumbar vertebrae, laterally by the iliac fossae and iliacus muscles, and anteriorly by the lower abdominal wall. The sacral promontory and the iliopectineal line forms the boundary between the ____ and ____ pelvis to delineate the boundary of the abdominal and pelvic cavities.
Small raised lip on top front of Sacrum
a bony ridge on the inner surface of the ilium and pubic bones that divides the true and false pelvis; also called the pelvic brim or linea terminalis.
anterior, posterior, vesicouterine, rectouterine
The uterus lies ____ to the rectum and _____ to the bladder and divides the pelvic peritoneal space into anterior and posterior pouches. The anterior pouch is called the _______ pouch, and the posterior pouch is called the ________ pouch, or the pouch of Douglas.
pouch of Douglas
The rectouterine pouch is also known as the ________ and is a common location for accumulation of fluids, such as pus or blood.
The fallopian tubes extend laterally from teh fundus of the uterus and are enveloped by a fold of peritoneum known as the ________. This ligament arises from the floor of the pelvis and contributes to the division of the peritoneal space into anterior and posterior pouches.
true pelvis, bladder
The ______ protects and contains the lower parts of the intestinal and urinary tracts and the reproductive organs. It is divided into anterior and posterior compartments. The anterior compartment contains the ______ and reproductive organs. The posterior compartment contains the posterior cul-de-sac, rectosigmoid muscle, perirectal fat, and presacral space.
The ______ is a serous membrane lining the walls of the abdominal cavity and clothing the abdominal viscera. It is formed by a single layer of cells called the ______, which rests on a thin layer of connective tissue.
The peritoneum is divided into two layers: the _____ , the portion that lines the abdominal wall but does not cover a viscus, and the _______, the portion that covers an orgen.
The _______ is the potential space between the parietal and visceral peritonea. This contains a small amount of lubricating serous fluid to help the abdominal organs move on one another without friction.
With certain pathologies, the potential space of the peritoneal cavity may be distended into an actual space containing several liters of fluid. This accumulation of fluid is known as _______.
mesentery, mesentery, mesocolon, mesocolon
A ______ is a two-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches part of the intestines to the posterior abdominal wall and includes the ____ of the small intestine, the transverse ____, and the sigmoid _____.
omentum, greater omentum, lesser omentum, gastrosplenic omentum
The _______ is a two-layered fold of the peritoneum that attaches the stomach to another viscous organ. The _____ is attached to the greater curvature of the stomach and hanges down like an apron in the space between the small intestine and the anterior abdominal wall. It is folded back on itself and attached to the inferior border of the transverse colon. The ______ slings the lesser curvature of the stomach to the undersurface of the liver. The _______ ligament connects the stomach to the spleen.
greater, lesser, greater sac, lesser sac
The peritoneal cavity may be divived into two parts known as the ____ and ____ sacs. The _____ is the primary compartment of the peritoneal cavity and extends across the anterior abdomen and from the diaphragm to the pelvis. The ____ is an extensive peritoneal pouch located behind the lesser omentum and stomach. It extends upward to the diaphragm and inferior between the layers of the greater omentum.
The ________ is the opening to the lesser sac in the abdomen.
The liver is attached by the ______ to the anterior abdominal wall and the the undersurface of the diaphragm.
The _______ spaces are the result of the complicated arrangement of the peritoneum in the region of the liver. The left and right ______ spaces lie between the diaphragm and the liver, one on each side of the falciform ligament.
subphrenic, Morison's pouch
The sonographer should become very familiar with the right posterior ______ space that lies between the right lobe of the liver, the right kidney, and the right colic flexure. This is also known as ________, and is a frequent location for fluid accumulation, such as ascites, blood, and infection.
The omental bursa normally has some empty places. Parts of the peritoneal cavity near the liver are so slitlike that they are also isolated. These areas are known as the ________, and are clinically important because infection may collect in them. Two common sites are where the duodenum becomes the jejunum and where the ileum joins the cecum.
The arrangement of the ascending and descending colon, the attachments of the transverse mesocolon, and the mesentery of the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall result in the formation of four paracolic _______. The clinical significance of these is their ability to conduct fluid materials from one part of the body to another. Materials such as abscess, ascites, blood, pus, bile, or metastases may be spread throughout this network.
Gutters are on the ____ and medial sides of the ascending and descending colon.
The ______ is an oblique passage through the lower part of the anterior abdominal wall. In the male, it allows strucures to pass to and from the testes to the abdomen. in the female, it permits passage of the round ligament of the uterus from the uterus to the labium majus.
A _____ is the protrusion of the abdominal contents beyond the normal confines of the abdominal wall. It has the following three parts: the sac, the contents of the sac, and the covering of the sac.
RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, LLQ
The abbreviations for the 4 abdominal quadrants are:
The __________ lies on the posterior abdominal wall behind the parietal peritoneum. It extends from the twelfth thoracic vertebra and the twelfth rib to the sacrum and the iliac crests.
stomach, spleen, liver, pancreas, kidneys, small intestine, part of large intestine, gallbladder
The visceral organs within the abdominal cavity include: (8)
right hypochondriac, epigastrium
Most of the right lobe of the liver is in the _______ and ______
epigastrium, left hypochondriac
The left lobe of the liver lies in the _____ and the _____
The gallbladder lies in the ______
The spleen lies in the _______ under the cover of the ninth, tenth, and eleventh ribs. Its long axis usually corresponds to the tenth rib, and in adults, it usually does not project forward of the midaxillary line.
epigastrium, head, body, tail
The pancreas lies in the ______. The three parts are the :
The kidneys lie in the right and left ______ regions
epigastric, umbilical, hypogastric
The aorta and inferior vena cava can be found in these regions:
The bladder and the uterus lie in the lower pelvis in the ______ plane
The stomach lies in the _____ plane
kidneys, ureters, uterus, bladder, prostate gland,adrenal glands, pancreas, aorta, inferior vena cava
The retroperitoneal cavity contains these organs: (9)
The ascending and descending colon as well as most of the duodenum are located in the _________
The _____ forms a completely closed sac in the male; in the female, communication with the exterior occurs through the fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina.
falciform ligament, ligamentum teres
The _____ and _____ are useful landmarks for the liver
The peritoneum leaves the kidney and passes to the hilus of the spleen as the posterior layer of the _____.
The visceral peritoneum covers the spleen and is reflected onto the greater curvature of the stomach as the anterior layer of the ______.
inguinal, femoral, umbilical, epigastric, rectus abdominis
Abdominal hernias are classified into the following types: (5)
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