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Terms in this set (20)
A superstition portending a good or evil event.
When and where were omens first recorded?
Old Babylonian Period (around 2nd millennium BC)
What common omen influenced historical events?
Solar or lunar eclipses
What was the Mesopotamian notation of Omens?
"protosis" an observation and then a "adopsis" or the outcome
What omen inspired Genghis Khan to invade Europe?
Omens observed by specially appointed priests based on the flight of birds. The way Jupiter's will was interpreted.
Auspicim or auspex
One who looks at birds
What city's inception is based on an augury?
What law first let plebians become augurs?
What was the power of an augury?
A favourable augury was needed for all state affairs to proceed.
Augury: ex caelo
from the sky. Based on thunder and lightning. No comitia could be held if an augur reported thunder or lighting.
Augury: ex avibus
from the birds.
Augury: ex avibus: Alites
Auguries from these birds were observed based on their flight. Eagles, hawks, etc.
Augury: ex avibus: Oscines
Auguries from these birds were observed based on their song. Crows, ravens, etc.
Augury: ex diris
Auguries observed from signals that could not be classified. Sneezes, stumbles and other slightly abnormal events.
Augury: ex quadredibus
Auguries read from four-legged animals.
Augury: ex tripudiis
from the dance of birds feeding. Used in military expeditions. Chickens are kept by a special keeper at special times they are released to feed. If the refused the auspice was considered unfavourable
What are self-fulfilling prophecies?
A prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive feedback between belief and behaviour
Who coined the term "self-fulfilling prophecy" and when?
The term was coined by Robert Merton in 1948 to describe a false definition of a situation evoking a new behaviour which makes the initial false conception come true
What are the four steps to self fulfilling prophecies
1. Perciever has expectation about how target will behave.
2. Perceiver then behaves in a way that is likely o elicit the expected target behaviour.
3. Target behaves in a way that confirms expectations.
4. Perciever sees predicted behaviour.
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