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Terms in this set (66)
Nearsighted, can't see far away
In electrochemical cells, salt bridges
prevent charge buildup in galvanic cells
Based on the general theory of enzyme action, the overall rate of the reaction (at all substrate and enzyme concentrations) is proportional to the concentration of
ES complex (slower step is the rate determining step)
When a material is undergoing a change in phase, it will always be accompanied by a change in
Density and Entropy
What aspects separate single crossover events from double crossover events?
Single - crossover events affect only the ends of chromosome arms, while double - crossover events can affect segments in the middle of chromosome arms
Greater than 1 = allostery
equal to 1 = no allsotery is present
less than 1 = negative cooperativity
Controlled by releasing factors from the hypothalamus
In part controlled by neuronal stimulus from the hypothalamus
Hardy - Weinberg Law
Dominant / recessive alleles within a population remain constant over time
1. Population size is large
2. Mutation is random
3. Mutation does not occur
4. Population does not take in genes from other populations
5. Selection does not occur
The two centriole pairs begin to move apart
Microtubules begin to radiate from each pair in all directions, forming an aster
The region from which microtubules extend outward is called the centrosome, or microtubule - organizing center (MTOC). Microtubules leaving the centrosome will eventually form the mitotic spindle
The nucelolus disappears and the nuclear membrane begins to break down.
chromosomes align on metaphase plate
Nuclear membrane has completely disappeared
Adsorbs to the air - water - alveoli interface, reducing surface tension and the total force resisting expansion. This increases pulmonary compliance - a measure of lung volume change at a given pressure of inspired air - and decreases the work required to expand the lungs at a given atmospheric pressure.
SDS - PAGE
An electrophoretic technique which involves the binding of the anionic detergent SDS to a polypeptide chain. SDS binding denatures and imparts an even distribution of charge per unit mass to the protein, resulting in fractionation by approximate size alone during electrophoresis
irregular heart beat
Absence of the P wave (attributed to contraction of the atria)
ECG associated with flow of Na+ ions (depolarization)
P , Q, and R
ECG associated with repolariation
Hydration / Solvation
Occurs when the attractive force on an ion molecule causes a thin shell of water molecules to surround it
loss of CO2 and an increase in O2 in the blood.
increase blood pH (lose of CO2) and increase hB affinity for O2
increase H2O/Na+ reabsorption from the kidney while exchanging K+ ions for Na+ ions
1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids
adenine and guanine (2 ring structure)
thymine, cytosine, and uracil (single - ring structure)
What affect on oxygen consumption would inhibition of the electron transport chain have?
Inhibiting the ETC would reduce oxygen demands because electrons would no longer be flowing to the oxygen, the final electron acceptor
Are trans-membrane receptors that modulate cell - to extracellular matrix interactions. Specifically, these proteins often attach the cell to collagen and fibronectin fibers
Are transmembrane proteins which play a primary role in cell - to - cell adhesion, forming adherens junctions to bind cells within tissues together
"de - inactivation" occurs once the action potential nears its end and the membrane voltage becomes sufficiently low (generally during the hyperpolarization phase). At this time, the inactivation gate opens and the activation gate closes. Since the channel is not inactivated, a stimulus could theoretically produce an action potential, but since the cell is hyperpolarized, this stimulus would need ti be larger than normal.
70S with 50S and 30S subunits
80S with 60S and 40S subunits
When one species benefits but the other species is neither helped nor harmed
The cathode is the negatively - charged electrode. The anode is the positively - charge electrode.
Mature mRNA consists of
a 5' - cap (one base pair), the 5' UTR, exons, the 3'UTR, and a poly (A) tail
What is the cause of a voluntary muscle contracting involuntarily?
The reflex arc
Most abundant glycerophosphlipids in the biological membrane
Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine
If a lipid bilayer folds back on itself, a hollow aqueous - filled structure will form
If the invagination during endocytosis resulted in a vesicle that contains the liquid portion of the extracellular enviroment
Involved in the synthesis of ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
The principal chemical modification involves the addition of carbohydrates (glycosylation) to the maturing protein in a sequential fashion. Other modifications involve sulfation (addition of inorganic sulfate) and proteolysis (reducing the size of the protein)
Once the proteins reach the trans face of the Golgi complex they appear to be sorted and concentrated into vesicles destined for different regions of the cell
Sterols, also known as steroid alcohols, are a subgroup of the steroids and an important class of organic molecules. They occur naturally in plants, animals, and fungi, with the most familiar type of animal sterol being cholesterol. Cholesterol is vital to animal cell membrane structure and function as a precursor to fat-soluble vitamins and steroid hormones.
involves production of a special conjugation pilus (sex pilus) by one bacterium and transfer through it of DNA to another bacterium. It requires special genes for the pilus and these are usually present on a plasmid, a separate extragenomic strand of DNA not incorporated into the bacterium's own DNA. This plasmid is referred to as the fertility or F factor.
Gram - negative bacteria
bacteria take up DNA from their surroundings, the media in which they are immersed
the process whereby genes are transferred by a virus
The normal path of sperm movement from the male testis to the point of fertilization in the female is:
epididymis, vas deferens, urethra, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tube
Albumin is the major blood osmoregulatory protein. The most likely effect of a sharp rise in the level of serum albumin is:
an influx of interstitial fluid in the bloodstream
result in an increase in BP
If chromosomal duplication before tetrad formation occurred twice during spermatogenesis, while the other steps of meiosis proceeded normally, which of the following would result from a single spermatocyte?
four diploid sperm
Because replication occurred twice instead of once prior to tetrad formation, each sperm would have twice the normal amount of DNA. As a result, four diploid sperm would be produced instead of four haploid sperm.
Consider an organism that has three pairs of chromosomes, AaBbCc, in its diploid cells. How many genotypically different kinds of haploid cells can it produce?
The number of different possible gametes that can be formed by diploid organisms as a result of independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis can be calculated using the formula 2^n where n is the haploid number of chromosomes.
Suppose that in a randomly mating population of mammals, 160 of its 1000 members exhibit a specific recessive trait that does not affect viability of the individual. How many individuals in the population are heterozygous carriers of the gene that causes this trait?
square root of 16/100 = .4 (q)
1-.4 = 0.6 (p)
2pq = 2(.6)(.4) = .48 , 48% or 480 of 1000
nonforced inspiration occurs when the diaphragm and muscles between the ribs (intercostal muscles) contract. The ribs attached at the sternum and spine lift in what is called a "bucket - handle" motion and the diaphragm flattens. These motions increase the volume of the thoracic cavity. Between the lung and the thoracic wall is a space, the pleural cavity. As the volume of the thoracic cavity increases atmospheric pressure pressures against the inside of the fleixble, elastic lung forcing it to conform to the thoracic wall. Air thus enters the lung as it expands with the thorax
Protein transcription principally occurs in the ER. The proteins are then transported to the Golgi for post translational modification, processing, and packaging for proper localization. Retrograde transport would reverse the motion and return the protein to the ER
1 - electron carrier
Cytochrome C is a heme protein that cycles betwen a ferrous and ferric state during oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore only single electron transfers are possible
G - C bonds
3 hydrogen bonds
T - A bonds
2 hydrogen bonds
In which phase of meiosis does nondisjunction occur?
nondisjunction is the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during anaphase I of meiosis or the failure of sister chromosomes to separate during anaphase II
If a D amino acid was utilized instead of an L amino (exclduing glycine) what would happen to the synthesis of new proteins?
Only L isomers are used to form proteins during ribosomal protein synthesis
If the GAPDH gene is continously expressed, where is it most likely found?
GAPDH is a housekeeping gene and is expressed continuously. A gene that is always turned on must be accessible to transcription factors. Euchromatin is in a loose conformation and readily accessible for transcription
contain a carboxylic acid head group and a hydrocarbon tail
The most likely result of various alanine to proline mutations
loss of secondary structure
Proline disupts alpha helicees
Why does the microfilament length not change when the sarcomere shortens in a muscle contraction?
The - ends of the microfilaments are capped by Z lines, and the + ends are capped by another protein.
Because one end of the microfilament is anchored in the Z line, actin monomers are prevented from being added or subtracted from that end. This rules out the possibility of treadmilling. Therefore, to retain a stable length, both ends of the microfilament must be capped
A bacterium containing genes for sex pilus construction gave rise to a daughter cell lacking these genes. This most probably occurred because:
Copies of the plasmid containing the genes were not equally distributed to the new daughter cells
When concentration urine is being produced, in which of the following regions of the kidney will the glomerular filtrate reach its highest concentration?
medullary portion of the collecting duct
What is the function of the Na+ K+ ATPase during a neuronal action potential?
Restoration of the resting potential
Cholesterol rich domain
composed of carbs
How are nucleotides linked when adjacent to each other?
Nucleotides are linked to one another by phosphodiester bonds between the sugar base of one nucleotide and the phosphate group of the adjacent nucelotide in a way that the 5' end bears a phosphate, and the 3' end a hydroxyl group
secreted proteins such as insulin are cleaved into mature form