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Alfred Adler

-Neo-Freudian but disagreed with Freud's emphasis on the unconscious, instinctual drives, and the importance of sexuality and had a more positive view
-Believed that we are social creatures governed by social urges, we strive for superiority
-Talked about how people attempt to compensate for their shortcomings

Mary Ainsworth

Secure attachment- stable and positive
Anxious-Ambivalent - desire to be with parent and some resistance to being reunited
Avoidant- tendency to avoid reunion with parent

Ernst Weber

He pioneered the first study on JND (just noticeable difference). It became Weber's law; the JND between stimulus is a constant fraction of the intensity of the standard stimulus. E.g. the bigger or more intense the standard stimulus, the larder the increment needed to get a noticeable difference. Room with 10 candles vs. one with 30 candles

Solomon Asch

Studied conformity- subjects were shown lines of different lengths and asked which lines matched an example line that they were shown, his accomplices gave the wrong answer to see how the actual subject would react to finding that their opinion differed from the group opinion, subject conformed in about 1/3 of the trials

Albert Bandura

Studied observational learning in children using a Bobo Doll,
this learning allows you to profit immediately from the mistakes and successes of others, adults punched dolls --> so did kids

Hermann Ebbinghaus

Forgetting curve, developed the first scientific approach to the study of a higher psychological process (memory), First person to use nonsense syllables in learning and memory research, First to describe the "learning curve"

Hans Selye

Studied stress- the body responds in the same way to any stress, general adaptation syndrome: a series of bodily reactions to prolonged stress

Alfred Binet

Designed the first intelligence test made of "intellectual" questions and problems, results were based on average scores for children in each age group, his test was revised by Lewis Terman and others at Stanford and made into the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, which were used in N America

James Cattell

First professor of psychology in the US, helped establish psychology as a legitimate science

Paul Ekman

Pioneer of the study of emotions and their relation to facial expressions, saying they are universal, developmental psychologists

Margaret Mead

Anthropologist who observed the Tchambuli people of New Guinea, where gender roles are the opposite of those in America

Albert Ellis

Cognitive therapist, founder of rational emotive behavioral therapy which attempts to change irrational beliefs that cause emotional problem

Carl Jung

People had conscious and unconscious awareness- two layers if unconscious awareness- personal/collective
People are either extroverts or introverts
Collective unconscious- mental storehouse for unconscious ideas and images shared by all humans, such universals create archetypes, anima and animus exist in everyone

William James

Wrote the Principles of Psychology and helped establish psychology as a serious discipline, regarded consciousness as a stream or flow of images and sensations

Carl Rogers

Humanist, emphasized that human capacity for inner peace and happiness, people need ample amounts of love and acceptance from others

Harry Harlow

Separated baby rhesus monkeys from their mothers at birth, placed with surrogate mothers either made of wire/metal or cloth, studied mother-infant relationships and discovered contact comfort

Sigmund Freud

Founder of psychoanalysis, Id, Ego, Superego, and many of our behaviors are driven by unconscious motives/desires

Leon Festinger

Cognitive dissonance

Alfred Kinsey

Studied human sexuality

Elizabeth Loftus

Along with John Palmer showed people a filmed automobile accident, asked how fast cars were going when they smashed or bumped or contacted, asked if they had seen broken glass in the film (there was none) to study the tendency of people to construct memories based on how they are questioned

Stanley Milgram

Studied obedience, two subjects ("teacher" and "learner") but the learner was actually an actor. The teacher was told to shock the learner every time they answered a question incorrectly to see how far they were willing to go

Lawrence Kohlberg

Studied moral development in men

Walter Mischel

psychologist specializing in personality theory and social psychology. People high in the need for achievement are more future oriented and more likely to delay gratification in order to pursue long-term goals. Critic of trait theory.

David McClelland

believes that IQ is of little value in predicting real competence to deal effectively with the world, IQ predicts school performance, not success in life

Robert Zajonc

Mere exposure effect, it is possible to have preferences without inferences and to feel without knowing why.

Wilhelm Wundt

introspection- psychology became the scientific study of conscious experience (rather than science)

David Weschler

Established an intelligence test especially made for adults

Hermann Rorshach

Created the Rorschach inkblot test, a projective test of personality, the subject reads the inkblots and projects to the observer aspects of their personality

Lewis Terman

Revised Binet's intelligence test to establish norms for American children and help create the Stanford-Binet Intelligence scales for use in North America, appropriate for people ages 2-90

Fritz Perls

Originator of Gestalt therapy, considered most dreams a special message about what's missing in our lives, what we avoid doing, or feelings that need to be "re-owned," believed that dreams are a way of filling gaps in personal experience, method of analyzing dreams involved speaking for characters and objects in your dreams

Edward Tolman

an American psychologist who proved that animals can learn broad concepts in addition to specific behaviors through experience

Benjamin Whorf

Says language determines the way we think

David Rosenhan

He with a number of people conducted a hospital experiment to test the diagnosis of hospitals make on new patients. He also wanted to see the impact on behavior on being a patient. He proved that once you are diagnosed with a disorder, your care would not be very good in a mental hospital setting.

John B. Watson

Founder of behaviorism, did the study of generalization, objected to the study of the mind or conscious experience, through introspection was unscientific, observed stimuli and response

Philip Zimbardo

Stanford prison experiment, students volunteered to play the roles of prisoners and guards, experiments had to be called off after 6 days, rather than the planned 2 weeks because the guards had become so sadistic that four of the ten prisoners suffered severe emotional issues

Lew Vygotsky

Sociocultural theory, children's thinking develops through dialogues with more capable persons, children actively seek to discover new principles, zone of proximal development- range of tasks a child cannot yet master alone but that she or he can accomplish with the guidance of a more capable partner

BF Skinner

Studied operant conditioning with rats and pigeons to manipulate the consequences of an organism's behavior in order to observe the effects of subsequent behavior, created a Skinner Box,

Abraham Maslow

Hierarchy of needs- needs at the lower level dominate an individual's motion as long as they are unsatisfied, once these needs are adequately met, the higher needs occupy the individual's attention

Charles Spearman

He found that specific mental talents were highly correlated, he concluded that all cognitive abilities showed a common core which he labeled "g" for general ability.

Ivan Pavlov

Studied classical conditioning, paired a bell with food to make dogs salivate

Robert Sternberg

Triangular theory of love- love is made up of intimacy, passion and commitment which can combine to produce seven types of love (romantic, liking, fatuous, infatuation, companionate, empty, consummate), Believed insight involved selective incoding, selective combination, and selective comparison

Martin Seligman

Prepared fear theory- we are prepared by evolution to readily develop fears to certain biologically relevant stimuli, such as snakes and spiders; learned helplessness is the giving up reaction, the quitting response that follows from the belief that whatever you do does not matter

Paul Ekman

the theory that facial expressions are universal, pioneer of the study of emotions and their relation to facial expressions, developmental psychologist

Michael Gazzaniga

split-brain research; important advances in our understanding of how the cerebral hemispheres communicate with one another

Elizabeth Kulbler- Ross

Thanatologiest- one who studies death, reactions to impending death- denial and isolation, anger, bargaining, depression, accpetance

Clark Hull

Drive theory, modern study of hypnosis

Jean Piaget

Child development occurs in stages, sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operation

G. Stanley Hall

Founded the American Journal of Psychology

Paul Broca

discovered area in the brain (named for him) in the left frontal lobe responsible for language production

Solomon Asch

Studied conformity- subjects were shown lines of different lengths

Diana Baumrind

her theory of parenting styles had three main types (permissive, authoratative, & authoritarian)

Mary Cover Jones

Pioneer of behavior therapy, unconditioned a fear of rabbits in a three old

Stanley Schachter

emotion; stated that in order to experience emotions, a person must be physically aroused and know the emotion before you experience it

Erik Erikson

People evolve through 8 stages over the life span. Each stage marked by psychological crisis that involves confronting "who am I"

John Garcia

Studied taste aversion in rats with radiation, decided there was an evolutionary element to taste aversion

Carol Gilligan

Created a theory of moral development in women because male psychologists were overly focused on defining moral maturity in terms of justice and autonomy. She pointed out that there is also an ethic of caring of others that is a major element of moral development.

Edward Thorndike

Learning theorist, laws of effect- the probability of a response is altered by the effect it has, acts that reinforced tend to be repeated.

Noam Chomsky

disagreed with Skinner and said there an infinite number of sentences in a language. He said that humans have an inborn native ability to develop language.

Gordon Allport

Three levels of traits: 1. Cardinal trait, 2. Central trait, 3. Secondary trait

Sandra Bem

studied gender roles, Bem Sex Role Inventory to study femininity, masculinity, adrogyny, rigid gender stereotypes greatly restrict behavior

Konrad Lorenz

Discovered the principle of imprinting, studied instinctive behavior in animals

Carl Wernicke

discovered area in left temporal lobe (named for him) involved in language comprehension - understanding speech and creating meaningful sentences

Hans Eysenck

personality theorist; asserted that personality is largely determined by genes, used introversion/extroversion

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