An assembly that represented the entire French population through three groups, known as estates; King Louis XVI called this in May 1789 to discuss the financial crises.
The middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people
Unhappy; displeased; miserable.
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
A French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people
Tennis Court Oath
A pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution.
A long pole used as a weapon.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
Group or clique within a larger organization; party strife and dissension.
A French congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the constitution of 1791.
French nobility who fled country to escape the Revolution.
A reference to Parisian workers who wore loose-fitting trousers rather than the tight-fitting breeches worn by aristocratic men.
This was the legislative branch of government that deposed the king of his title, declared France a republic and publicly executed the king and queen
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
A machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.
Reign of Terror
This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed.
A sudden overthrow of the government by a small group
A direct vote in which a country's people have the opportunity to approve or reject a proposal
Nationwide system of secondary schools created by Napoleon. Trained men to be soldiers, doctors, lawyers, etc. Trained women in dancing, sewing, child care, etc.
French civil code established in the early 1800s; basis of many civil codes today and still remains France's civil code
A government in weak nation which appears to locals as a government of home rule, but is actually being controlled by a larger more powerful government.
An act of sealing off a place to prevent goods or people from entering or leaving.
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy.
Small groups of loosely organized soldiers making surprise raids.
Scorched Earth Policy
Destroying crops and livestock so that one's enemy has nothing to use for food as they invade. Used by the Russians when Napoleon invaded in 1812.