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M26 - Dental Abscesses & Salivary gland infections
Terms in this set (22)
How do Dentoalveolar abscesses develop?
1) Carious Lesion
2) Bacteria spread to pulp via dentinal tubules
3) Acute inflammation - pulpitis - necrosis
4) chronic localized abscess
Factors that can lead to Dentolalveolar abscess?
Traumatic fracture or tooth wear
Traumatic exposure during treatment
Via periodontal membrane & root canals
Anachoresis - seeding via pulpal blood supply
How does an abscess spread?
Needs access to soft tissue via direct or indirect spread.
Symptoms of abscesses?
What are the 3 key factors in abscesses?
Number of virulent bacteria
Local and systemic immunity
What bacteria are found in abscesses and necrotic pulps?
- S. anginosus
- S. oralis
- Prevotella spp
- Fusobacterium nucleatum
Treatment for necrotic pulp and abscess?
Local management - drain pus
Treatment - Amoxycillin or clarithromycin
Treatment for periodontal abscess?
Extraction and Drainage - gentle scaling - irrigate with 09% saline and antibiotics;
What bacteria are associated with infection after root canal treatment?
- F. nucleutum
- Enterococcus faecalis
- Candida albicans
What are the key features of Enterococcus faecalis?
Faculatatiev anaerobe - common in intestine
Adhere to collagen
Persistent In nutrient low environments
Resistant to Calcium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite.
What is a dry socket?
Localised infection of a socket that has failed to heal post extraction.
Treatment; antiseptic dressing & metronizadole.
What can cause implantitis?
Surgical trauma - overheating of bone or compression of bone chips.
Persistence if root particles or foreign bodies
Infection of implant surface
Implant to infected site
S.aureus & S.epidermis in abscess
What is Ludwigs Angina?
Post extraction infection
Bilateral infection sublingual and submandibular spaces
Base of mouth and tongue swell and swelling of neck tissues and airway obstruction.
What is Osteomyletis of the Jaw?
Inflammation of medullary cavity of mandible or maxilla
- pain, fever, loosening of teeth and exudate of pus through gingiva or sinus
- few symptoms, tender and indurated (hardened) skin
Causes of Osteomyletis of the Jaw?
Post radiation therapy - necrosis of blood supply and reduced saliva flow
What are the flora in Osteomyletis of the Jaw?
Tanerella, Prevotella, Porphymonas spp
List the 4 Bacterial infections of the salivary glands.
Acute bacterial parotitis
Chonic bacterial parotitis
Recurrent parotitis of childhood -observed prior to puberty - repeated acute episodes
Submandibular sialadentitis - rare - similar to acute par.
What are the predisposing factors of Acute bacterial parotitis?
generalized sialectasis (generalized swelling and dilatation of salivary gland and duct)
Describe presentation of Acute bacterial parotitis.
Swelling of parotid gland
rarely fever and chills
Microbiology of Acute bacterial parotitis?
S.aureus and oral streps
Treatment of Acute bacterial parotitis?
Describe chronic bacterial parotitis.
Damaged glands or Sjorgens syndrome
Chronic nature can lead to replacement fibrosis
Destruction of gland
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
M25 - Anaerobes
M27 - Infective Endocarditis
M28 - Protzoa
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