Van Der walls interactions:
Weak attractions between molecules or parts of molecules that result from transient local partial charges.
An energy level of electrons at a characteristic average distance from the nucleus of an atom
The outermost energy shell of an atom, containing the valence electrons involved in the chemical reactions of that atom.
Nonpolar covalent bond:
A type of covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally between two atoms of similar electronegativity
The capacity to cause change, especially to do work ( to move matter against an opposing force).
A type of weak chemical bond that is formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule or in another region of the same molecule.
Polar covalent bond:
A covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity.
The shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other tom slightly positive.
An isotope ( an atomic form of a chemical element ) that is unstable; the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off detectable particles and energy.
A subatomic particle having no electrical charge (electrically neutral), with a mass of about 1.7 7 times; 10-24g, found in the nucleus of an atom.
One of several atomic of a element, each with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons, thus differing in atomic mass.
A subatomic particle with a single positive electrical charge, with a mass of about 1.7 & time; 10-24 g found in the nucleus of an atom.
An attraction between two atoms, resulting from a sharing of outer-shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atoms. The bonded atoms gain complete outer electron shells.
A subatomic particle with a single negative electrical charge and a mass about 1/2000 that of a neutron or proton. One or more electrons more around the nucleus of an atom.
The making and breaking of chemical bonds, leading to changes in the composition of matter
The energy that matter possesses as a result of its location or spatial arrangement (structure)
A type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons.
An atom or group of atoms that has gained or lost one or more electrons, thus acquiring a charge.
In a chemical reaction, the state in which the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction, so that the relative concentrations of the reactants and products fo not change with time.