AP Environmental Science Midterm Review MC CH. 7

Ch. 7 Select Multiple Choice
1) Environmental policy aims to _____
B) promote fairness among people and groups in the use of resources
3) Decisions rendered by the courts make up a body of law known as _____
C) case law
4) Enforcement and elaboration of statutory law is given to _______
E) administrative agencies
5) Statutory laws are passed by ______
B) the legislative branch
7) The takings clause means that _____
D) private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation
8) A regulatory taking _____
A) means that the government does not take possession of the property but deprives the owner of most of its economic value
10) The General Mining Act of 1872 ____
C) provides no governmental oversight to mining in the United States
11) The first national park in the world was ____
C) Yellowstone
19) Juanita and Sam attend a beach party and notice that the local beach appears to have a great deal more trash washed up on shore than it did when they were young. The water doesn't appear nearly as clear, and there seems to be less evidence of small water creatures living in the shallows. An afternoon at the local library convinces them that one major cause is the new factory nearby. After some discussion, they decide their next step should be____
D) Talking to a local environmental group about solutions
24) Norman Myers points out that government subsidies are often ____
A) supporting activities and businesses that are environmentally harmful
25) Cap and Trade is a system that ___
E) permits industries that pollute under the federal cap to sell credits to industries that pollute over the cap.
26) In 2009, the G-20 nations agreed to____
C) double the subsidies to fossil fuel companies
27) In a public- private partnership ____
D) a for-profit entity works on an environmental project, supervised by a government agency
28) Regarding environmental laws and the US Constitution ______
D) state laws cannot violate the Constitution
Use Figure 7.1 to answer the following questions

35) According to the figure, the basis for government policy regarding environmental issues _____.
E) comes from the sciences, with additional input from the public and private sectors.
36) The distinction of scientific study's input into governmental solution of environmental problems is that it ____
A) is independent of any other influences in its effect on forming government policy
37) Regarding the issue of global warming, until the hurricane season of 2005, the federal government's official stance was that the information available from the scientific community was neither conclusive nor persuasive. This governmental position was probably due to _______
B) the private sector's reluctance to change manufacturing and land use strategies
38) In recent decades a great deal of scientific research and observation has been funded and published by commercial and corporate interests. Since this science may not have to pass the peer review process and may have motives for biased reporting, it could be included in the diagram as ___
C) lobbying by the private sector
Wetlands provide a multitude of ecological, economic, and social benefits. They provide habitat for many organisms and are nurseries for many saltwater and freshwater fishes and shellfish. Wetlands also hold and slowly release floodwater and snow
melt, recharge groundwater, act as cleansing filters, recycle nutrients, and provide recreation. As of 2000, the contiguous United States was estimated to have about 105 million acres of wetlands remaining. Over the past 60 years, it has lost over 16
million acres of wetlands, and the loss continues at about 58,000 acres annually. Nearly one-third of the loss is due to urban development, with the rest being nearly equally divided between rural development, agriculture, and silviculture (predominantly logging). The southeastern United States is experiencing the greatest losses. The Emergency Wetlands Resources Act of 1986 requires the Fish and Wildlife Service to conduct status and trend studies of the nation's wetlands and
to report the results to Congress each decade. The overall goal is to have no more net loss of wetlands. In the past 5 years,money for flood control projects in Louisiana has been cut dramatically. During that time, two simulations, one of a category 4 hurricane and one of a category 5 hurricane, indicated catastrophic damage and loss of life along the Gulf Coast. The levees
were predicted to break, and massive flooding to occur, in part due to the loss of the sheltering wetlands.

40) Wetlands in the United States___
C) have decreased due to human development
44) From the scenario above, one conclusion regarding the Gulf Coast damage from the hurricane season of 2005 is that _____
B) the combination of wetland losses and budget cuts was probably responsible for the outcome