66 terms

science chapter ten

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plantae
plants belong to kingdom
they are producers, eukaryotic and multicellular, have tissues, have plastids (chloroplasts), have cell walls containing cellulose
plant characteristics
botany
study of plants
roots, stems, leaves
three types of plant organs
roots
do not have nodes
leaves
attach to stems at nodes
stems
have nodes
nodes
region of the plant where leaf is attached
taproot system
one or a few main roots that are thicker and longer than the other plant roots
carrots, dandelions
taproot system examples
fibrous root system
cluster of roots that are equal in size and have several branches
grass
fibrous root system example
woody stem
hard and not very flexible stem with strong thick cells
woody stem example
trees
herbaceous stem
softer, more flexible with less supporting cells
herbaceous stem examples
house plants, flowering plants
blade
The flat green part of a leaf. Edges are smooth, tooth, or lobed. Types are simple leaf or compound
Veins
water and sugar conduction tissues in leaves
3 types of leave venation
parallel, palmate, pinnate
palmate
veins branch from base leaf
pinnate
1 main vein with smaller branches
petiole
leaves connected to a stem by the
alternate, opposite, whorled
3 types of patterns
alternate leaf pattern
only one leaf attached at a node
opposite leaf pattern
two leaves attached at each node
whorled leaf pattern
three or more leaves per node
cell wall, and plastids
What are 2 important organelles of plant cells?
cellulose.
cell walls are made of _________. which is made of long chains of sugar molecules.
turgor pressure is caused by
water inside the cell walls. High pressure makes the plant stiff
food
plastids are necessary for the plant to make and store _________
xylem
tissue made of long, hollow cells that carry water from the roots to the stems and leaves. (like a drinking straw)
phloem
tissue that carries a sugar solution from the leaves to the other parts of the plant. these are not hollow tubes
vascular bundles
arrangement of xylem and phloem in leaves and young plants
fibers
long, narrow, thick-walled cells that support the vascular bundles. Example: cornstalks
epidermis
the outermost tissue of leaves, young roots, and young stems.
cuticle
a protective, waxy covering in many leaves called
bark
layer outside the xylem of a tree trunk
vascular cambium
layer between the xylem and the bark
cork
outermost layer of the bark made of dead cells
cork cambium
layer of living cells just under the dead cork that constantly divides with mitosis
dead cork cells do not expand as the tree grows so they can break apart
Why is bark rough in texture?
roots
1st step of water transpiration: water enters through the _______.
xylem
2nd step of water transpiration: water is transported through the ____________.
leaves
3rd step of water transpiration: water exits through the ____________.
aerobic, energy
most plants use ___________ cellular respiration to convert sugar from photosynthesis to usable _________.
supply needs of plant cells and helps carry out plant functions
how a plant uses sugar
phloem
if plant cells make more sugar than needed, __________ transports sugar to other parts of plant.
cellulose (cell walls)
some sugar is bonded together to make _______________
starch
some sugar is stored and forms _______________ (corn, potatoes, bananas).
lipids
some sugar is stored as _________________ (corn oil, olive oil, peanut oil)
starches, and lipids
consumers use energy obtained from eating ___________ and _______________ stored in plant cells.
the roots
1st factor for plant growth: sugar absorbed through ______________
sugar
2nd factor for plant growth: _________ produced from photosynthesis
environment
3rd factor for plant growth: ___________ like the right soil and the right light
hormones
4th factor for plant growth: ________________, substances affecting how tissue grows
tropisms
the growth responses of plants to their environments are called __________
phototropisms, positive
___________________ growth response of a plant to light. If a plant turns toward the light, its called _________ tropism
thigmatropisms, attach
_________________ plant's response to touch. Some plants __________ to the plant is growing near.
gravitropisms
plant's response to gravity
nastic movements
reversible, repeatable plant movements. depends on changes in turgor pressure
tulip blooms/closes, venus flytrap
nastic movement examples
photoperiodism
plant's response to the length of time it is exposed to light.
phytochromes
growth regulators in plants sensitive to light
short-day plants
bloom when days are short and nights are long
long-day plants
bloom when days are long and nights are short
day-neutral plants
bloom regardless of amount to light as long as conditions are right
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