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functions of blood cells
Terms in this set (83)
Erythocytes Function (or RBC)
Transport oxygen bound to hemoglobin molecules; also transport small amount of carbon dioxide
Leukocytes Function (or WBC)
Form a protective, movable army that help defend the body against damage by bacteria, viruses, parasites, and tumor cells
Neutrophils Function-(type of WBC)
Active phagocytes; number increases rapidly during short term or acute infections
Eosinophils Function (type of WBC)
allergic response & attack parasites
Kill parasitic warms; increase during allergy attacks; might phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes and inactivate some inflammatory chemicals
Basophils Function (type of WBC)
release histamine in allergic attack & first response until more WBCs arrive
Granules contain histamine which is discharged at sites of inflammation
Lymphocytes Function (type of WBC)
role is to attack infections, virus & early stage cancer
Part of immune system; one group(B lymphocytes) produces antibodies; other group(T lymphocytes) involved in graft rejection, fighting tumors and viruses, and activating B lymphocytes
Monocytes Function (type of WBC)
eat up large particles
Active phagocytes that become macrophages in the tissues; long term "clean up team"; increase in number during chronic infections such as tuberculosis
Needed for normal blood clotting; initiate clotting cascade by clinging to broken area; help to control blood loss from broken blood vessels
three types of plasma
Albumin, Globulin & Fibrinogen
Maintains osmotic pressure of the blood, preventing plasma from leaking into the tissues
have many functions, such as transporting other substances and, as antibodies, protecting the body against infection.
an inactive protein that is activated to form fibrin
Bone marrow first produces?
blood stem cells (pluripotent stem cells)
after blood stem cells?
committed stem cell (precursor cell)
parts of RBC recycled?
-no nucleus when mature, biconcave disk shape, flexible membrane
-4.2-5.4 million/uL (women) & 4.7-6.1 million/uL (men)
-iron and hemoglobin
decreased RBC means?
RBCs are also_______ & maintain ______
buffers & acid-base balance
the transfer of oxygen from hemoglobin to tissues
when tissue oxygen is less than normal it is called?
when there is hypoxia in the body what happens?
kidneys release erythropoietin to stimulate increased RBC production in the bone marrow
bone marrow production of platelets is precisely controlled by which growth factor?
where are platelets stored?
and how much of the bodies platelet supply is where?
-in the spleen
- 80% is circulated in blood & 20% is stored in spleen
which two organs are important for blood production?
liver and spleen
what enzyme changes fibrinogen into active fibrin?
what enzymatically activates factor X?
factor VIII & factor IX
how does aspirin interfere
inhibits activation of platelets
action in anti-clotting that prevents over-enlargement of the fibrin clot
what combines with another protein (called von Willebrand's factor) to help platelets adhere to capilarry walls in areas of tissue injury?
antihemophilic factor is also called?
Plasma thromboplastin component (christmas factor) is also called?
what activates factor X to convert prothrombin to thrombin. and is essential in the common pathway between the intrinsic and extrinsic clotting cascade?
hemophilia B is caused by?
lack of factor IX and synthesis is vitamin K-dependent
hemophilia A (classis hemophilia) is caused by?
lack of factor VIII
MCV (mean corpuscular volume) normal level?
MCH (mean corpuscular Hgb) levels?
if MCV or MCH levels are high means?
evidence of macrocytic (large) cells, possible anemia
if MCV or MCH levels are low means?
evidence of microcytic (small) cells, possible iron deficiency anemia
TIBC (total iron-binding count) levels?
TIBC levels are high means?
TIBC levels are low means?
anemia, hemolysis or hemorage
iron levels low?
iron deficiency anemia or hemorage
iron levels high?
hemochromatosis, iron excess, liver disorder or megaloblastic anemia
platelet levels high?
malignancy or polycythemia vera
platelet levels low?
autoimmune disease, bone marrow suppression or enlarged spleen
deficiency or clotting
vitamin K excess
1.5-2x's normal range of 30-40 seconds
hemophilia, liver disease or DIC
intrinsic clotting factors
and monitored for heparin therapy
2-3 on warfarin therapy
a genetic disorder that results in chronic anemia, pain, disability, organ damage, increased risk for infection and early death. indicated by abnormal hemoglobin chains
sickle cell anemia or sickle cell disease (SCD)
hypoxia, SOB, fatigue, weakness, rapid HR, low to average BP, cyanosis, priapism (prolonged erection), jaundice, protein in urine, low grade fever
Sickle cell disease
medicine used to reduce number of sickling and pain episodes in Sickle cell disease?
deferoxamine mesylate (Desferal, Desferrioxamine), deferasirox (Exjade) are used for what?
manage transfusion-induced iron overload
-inherited hemolytic anemia as an X-linked recessive disorder, most fully expressed in homozygous males and in some heterozygous females (carriers).
-stimulates reactions in glucose metabolism
-those with this disorder have cells break more easily when exposed to certain drugs
glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency anemia (G6PD)
patient with this disorder cannot take these drugs: sulfonamides, aspirin, quinine derivatives, rasburicase, chloramphenicol, dapsone, high doses of Vit C and thiazide diuretics or be exposed to benzene and other toxins
this anemia can lead to acute kidney failure?
immunohemolytic anemia occurs when?
body begins to attack itself and RBC destruction occurs causing membrane lysis (breakage)
this anemia occurs when antibodies are most active at 98.6*F and occurs with IgG
warm antibody anemia
this anemia occurs most at 86*F has complement protein fixation on IgM
cold antibody anemia
first line of treatment for the two immunohemolytic anemias (warm & cold antibody anemia)?
steroid therapy to suppress immune function
this anemia has these symptoms: weakness, pallor, fatigue, reduced exercise tolerance, fissures at corners of the mouth, brittle nails, coarsely ridged or spoon-shaped and concave
iron deficiency anemia
ferumoxytol (feraheme), Dexferrum are used to treat?
iron deficiency anemia
this anemia is caused by inhibited folic acid transport and Reduced DNA synthesis in precursor cells?
megaloblastic or Macrocytic anemia
this anemia results from poor intake of foods containing vit B12?
Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia
thes anemia results from failure to absorb vit B12?
pernicious anemia is normally caused by a deficiency of ?
intrinsic factor-a substance normally secreted by the gastric mucosa which is needed for intestinal absorption of vit B12
a smooth, beefy-red tongue
abnormal sensations (usually seen in feet and hands of people with pernicious anemia along with poor balance)
Cyanocobalamin (CaloMist) is used for?
vit B12 for people with deficiency
how can you tell the difference between vit B12 anemia and folic acid deficiency anemia?
there will be no nervous system problems in folic acid deficiency anemia
a deficiency of circulating red blood cells due to failure of the bone marrow to produce the cells, though sometimes it occurs with leukopenia(reduced WBC) and thrombocytopenia (reduced platelets).......what is this anemia?
a deficiency of all three cell types that is common in aplastic anemia
polycythemia is when?
the number of RBCs in the blood is greater than normal
the blood is thicker than normal and is seen in those with polycythemia
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Human Blood Types
Blood - Plasma
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